The Relationship Between Self Esteem And Depression In Adolescents Coping Strategy.
The Relationship Between Self Esteem And Depression In Adolescents Coping Strategy, is a project work that explains self esteem and depression in relationship with adolescent.
1.1 Background of the Study
It has been said that coping in psychology refers to expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness of coping efforts depends on the type of stress and/or conflict the particular individual and the circumstances.
Psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills, subconscious or non conscious strategies eg. Defence mechanisms are generally excluded. The term coping generally refers to adaptive or constructive coping strategies i.e. the strategies reduce stress levels. However some coping strategies can be considered maladaptive i.e. stress level increase, Maladaptive coping can thus be describe in effect, as non –coping APA (2002).
Furthermore, the term coping generally refers to reactive coping, i.e the coping response follows the stessors. This contrasts with preactive coping, in which a coping response aims to head off a future stressor.
Coping responses are partly controlled by personality (habitual traits), but also partly by the social environment, particularly the nature of the stressful environment.
On the types (various) of coping strategies, hundreds of coping strategies have been identified classification of these strategies into a broader architecture has not been agreed upon common distinction are often made between various contrasting strategies. For example: problem focused versus emotion focused, engagement verses disengagement; cognitive versus behavioural. The psychology textbook by Wecten identifies three broad.
1.2 Types of Coping Strategies:
• Appraisal –focused: Directed towards challenging one’s own assumptions adaptive cognitive.
• Problem -focused : Direct towards reducing or eliminating a stressor, adaptive behavoural
• Emotion -focused: Direct towards changing one’s own emotional reaction. (Sternberg, 2001)
People using problem – focused strategies try to deal with the cause of their problems. They do this by finding information on problem and learning new skills to manage the problem. Problem – focused coping is aimed at changing or eliminating the source of the stress. The three problems – focused coping strategies identified by Folkman and Lazarus are taking control, information seeking, and evaluating the pros and cons.
emotion – focused strategies involve releasing pentrop emotions, distracting oneself, managing hostile feeling, meditating or using systematic relaxing procedures.
Emotion – focused coping “is oriented toward managing the emotion that accompany the perception of stress. The five emotion –focused coping strategies identified by Folkman and Lazarus are disclaiming, escape – avoidances; accepting responsibility or blame, exercising self – control, and positive reappraisal. emotion – focused coping is a mechanisms to alleviate distress by minimizing, reducing or preventing the emotional components, of a stressor. This mechanisms can be applied through a variety of way, such as seeking social support, reappraisal the stressor in a positive light, accepting responsibility, using avoidances exercise self control, and distancing.
This focus of their coping mechanism is to change the meaning of the stressor or transfer attention away from it. For example, reappraising tries to find a more positive meaning of the cause of the stress in order to reduce the emotional component of the stressor. Avoidance of the emotional – focused coping is well suited for stressor that seem uncontrolled (ex. a terminal illness diagnosis, or the lost of loved one.) Some mechanisms of emotion –focused coping, such as distancing or avoidance, can have alleviating outcome for short period of time, however they can detrimental when used over an extended period. Positive emotion –focused mechanisms, such as seeking social support and positives re –appraisal, are associated with beneficial outcome.
Briefly on gender differences, gender – differences in coping strategies are the ways in which men and women differ in managing psychological stress. There is evidence that males often develop stress due to the careers, whereas females often encounter stress due to issues in interpersonal relationship. early studies indicated that “there were gender differences in coping were relatively small after controlling for the source of stressor” and more recent work has similarly revealed “small differences between woman’s and men’s coping strategies when studying individuals in similar situations.
In general, such difference as exist indicate that women and to employ emotion – focused coping and the “tend –and – befriend” response to stress, whereas mentend to use problem –focused coping and the “fight –flight response, perhaps because societal standards encourage men to be more individualistic, while women are often excepted to be interpersonal. An alternative explanation for aforementioned differences involves genetic factors. The degree to which genetic factors and social conditizing influence behaviorual the subject of ongoing debate.
Feeling of self-worth tends to drop during the early adolescent years (Ewen, 1980). Self-esteem is a critical component in functional family relationships, positive altitudes and overall happiness. Facilitators use interactive classroom activities to teach adolescent strategies to improve self-esteem and enable them to deal effectively with, negative situations. According to Westfield and Cranford (1893), low self-esteem puts a person at risk for depression. Ironically, the depression itself can lower your image even further until you are trapped in a negative cycle. A poor self-image can make you feel guilty and unworthy of happiness, which reinforces the depression. Fortunately, you can break out of this cycle with strategies to improve your self-esteem and depressive symptoms.
While middle school children were not historically looked upon as candidates for depression, modern health professionals do believe it’s a valid mental health concern. According to Peterson, et al., (1993) the relationship of self-esteem and depression in adolescence, depression is often mistaken for other issues, such as attention deficit disorder, eating disorders or other conditions. According to Angold, (1986) teen depression, parents and observers of adolescents may also see laziness or generally, grumpiness in their child as rebellious behavior when it is in fact depression.
Adolescent stress may be caused by stress and anxiety in social, school and family situations. Parents who are abusive, who have high expectations or show general negligence may cause depression on in their children. The child may also be seeing work load in school. Depression is a chronic illness, and people living with major depression generally need to seek medical treatment to manage their symptoms and resume a normal life (Abraham, 1927).
There are numerous ways to cope with depression. And while medications are commonly prescribed to help people living with depression, suffer may employ other strategies to help deal with their condition.
Some symptoms of depression include sadness, loss of interest in activities, fatigue, irritability, restlessness and weight loss. Depression can range from mild to serve and doctors base treatment on the severity of the condition. Often times, people living with depression require medication. Antidepressants are safe, and they are commonly recommended to treat depression and balance moods these include selective serotonin re uptake inhibitors tricycle and monoamine oxides inhibitors (Ewen, 1980). Unfortunately, results aren’t always immediate, and it can take up to 12 weeks to notice the effect of medication.
Speaking with a therapist is another common and effective treatment for depression; medications uplift moods and treat depression. However, they don’t deal with the underlying cause of the depression. To uncover the root of depression and treat the condition without medication, people living depression ought to consider counseling or therapy (Frauds 1968). The purpose of therapy is to explore problems and feelings and hopefully, to find a solution. Therapists help patient recognize circumstances that bring on depression and teach coping skills, which can ward off an attack of depression.
Along with traditional strategies, such as medication and therapy, several home remedies are proven to help balance moods and text depression symptoms. Being active is a key remedy for depression. Through regular exercise or playing sports, your brain releases brain chemicals that are crucial to pleasure -dopamine and serotonin. To overcome depression and improve your body, set aside at least 30 minutes each day for exercise. Avoiding illegal drugs and alcohol can also improve symptoms of depression and taking omega-3 and vitamin b supplements along with medications can speed your recovery (Bandura, 1977).
Educators, parents, business and government leaders agree that we need to develop individuals; with healthy or high self esteem characterized by tolerance and respect for others.
Individuals who accept responsibilities for their actions have integrity, take pride in their accomplishment, who are self motivated, willing to risks, capable of handling criticism, loving and lovable, seek the challenges and stimulation of worthwhile and demanding goods and take command and control of their lives. In other words, we need to help foster the development of people who have healthy or authentic self esteem because they trust their own being to be life affirming constructive, responsible and trust worthy.
There are different conceptions on the critical nature of self esteem. some have referred self esteem as merely feeling good or having positive feeling about one self, other have gone so far as to equate self esteem with egoism, narcissism, a sense of superiority (Birbing, 1981). A trait leading to violence such characteristic cannot be attributes to authentic healthy self esteem,
Individuals with defensive or low self esteem typically focus on trying to prove themselves or impress other. They tend to others for their own gain. Some act with arrogance and contempt towards.
They generally lack confidence in themselves, often have doubts about their worth and acceptability and hence are reluctant to take risks or expose themselves to failure they frequently blame others for their shortcoming rather than taking responsibility for their own actions (Canhval and Baker, 1991).
A close relationship has been documented between low self esteem and such problem as violence, alcoholism, teenage pregnancy, suicide and low academic achievement. We know that people who have low self esteem are more susceptible to depression when the going get tough but what influences people to develop low self esteem in the first place; many studies have explained that factors like childhood experiences of trauma, socio isolation or certain parenting style bring about low self esteem in children and adolescence. While all of risk factors have been shown to be associated with childhood low self esteem parenting style is believed to be the greatest risk factor.
There is however general agreement that the term, self esteem includes cognitive as one consciously think about oneself as one considers the discrepancy between ones wished to be and the perceived self or the realistic appraisal of how ones sees oneself (Ejimakor, 1998).
The effective elements refer to the feelings or emotion that one has when considering that discrepancy the behavioral aspects of self esteem are manifest in such behavior as assertiveness, residence, being decisive and respectful to others. This concept of self esteem is found on the premise that it is strongly connected to a sense of competence and worthiness and the relationship between the two as one lives life. the worthiness, components of self esteem is often misunderstood as simply feeling good about one self when it actually is tried to whether or not a person a person lives up to certain fundamental human values such as finding meanings that foster integrity and satisfaction.
A sense of competence is having the conviction that one is generally capable of producing desired results having confidence in the efficiency of our mind and other ability to think as well as to make appropriate choices and decisions. Worthiness might be considered the psychological aspects of self esteem, while competence might be considered the behavioural or sociological aspects of self esteem (Bernard, et al, 1996). Self esteem stems from the experience of living consciously and might be viewed as a person’s over all judgment of himself pertaining to self competence and self worth based on reality.
Self esteem simply puts is how well you think about yourself compared to other people such as friends and work mates self esteem is a concept used to denote the individuals opinion about himself or herself. It is based on one attitude to the following. one valve as a personal, the jobs purpose in life, one’s strength and weakness, one social status important part of self images define how we value ourselves, how we rate ourselves and what we think of ourselves, if we have high self esteem then we think well of ourselves (Books, 2004).
Some people who poses a healthy level of self esteem are more optimistic about the future, persist longer at difficult task and evaluate themselves positively, they experience less stress than people with low self esteem, who are pessimistic about the future and evaluate themselves, their strength and weakness negatively. In fact long term stress have been associated with low self esteem feelings of inadequate, frigidity and withdrawal from social; interactions among many other things.
Therefore, there are two general types of self esteem are as follows:
1. High self esteem
2. Low self esteem
The first kind result from having high level of optimisms, confidence and happy disposition people with high self esteem accepts reality as it is and then looks at it or explores it with the aim of dealing with it by either mastering it or copy with it. A person high esteem does not personalize things that happen around him or her but rather tries to access all the necessary resources to deal successfully with them. People who have high self esteem are always aware of themselves they are highly motivated they have the right attitude to succeed in life.
Healthy self esteem is based on our ability to access ourselves accurately and been able to realistically acknowledge strength and weakness. The stronger the self esteem the less one develops consciousness of the self and so the greater the less sense of skills and resources as well as the ability to handle what so ever comes one way. Living a low self esteem results from living a low self esteem image. it is characterized by a negative perception of one or more of the attitude of self esteem such as how you think others sees you, what your potential for success are and the ability to ask for help. low self esteem means that you think you are lesser person than others; it can often be traced back to early childhood experiences, such as heavy criticism being abandoned, feeling unloved, or symptom of depression. What are the signs of low self esteem? The sign some apply to timid people and some can apply to bullies.
. Putting you rself down all the time.
. Being too scared to try new things.
. Unsure of your good qualities.
. Making no effort because you expect or mess things up.
. Being timid, not asserting yourself.
. Losing your temper
. Picking fights
. Worrying about getting even.
. Blaming others for your problem
. Constantly bickering about petty issues.
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People who have depression are not just moody or have “the blues” for a few days; they have long periods of feeling very sad and loss of interest in social and daily activities. Depression changes the way a person feels thinks and between. Everyone can go through times of feeling down or grieving for a while after having suffered loss. But for people with medical condition called depression, felling very sad or having no interest in activities can go on for a long times a life long term player finds he or she does not want to ply anymore and fells restless and unable to concentrate much of the time and sometimes depression can be bought on by a major life event. The symptoms of depression as with other illness may differ from person to person not everyone will have all the same symptoms as listed below.
1.3 Sign and Symptoms of Depression
. A persistent sad mood or
. A loss of interest or pleasure in most activities and is accompanied by some of the following symptoms.
. Changes in appetite or weight
. Changes in sleep patterns.
. Restlessness or decreased activity that is notable to others.
. Loss of energy or feeling of tired all the time.
. Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions.
. Feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt.
. Recurrent though of death or suicide.
However, people become depressed when they makes an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives, (Abrahamson, Beligman and Teasdale, 1979, Miller and Norman, 1979). These findings evolved into am important model called the headed Helplessness theory of depression. “Seligman pointed out that depression follow marked hopelessness about coping with the difficulty of life events (Barlow. 1988, 2002, Mineta and Kelly, 1989).
Moreover, the depressive attribution style is
. Internal, in that even after a particular negative events in personal failing ( it is all my faults).
. “Stable in that even after particular negative events in poses the attribution that additional bad things will always be my fault.
. Global in that the extended across wide variety of issues.
Hoeskema, Cirgus and Seligman (1992) reported that negative attributional style did not predict later symptoms of depression in young children rather; stressful life events seem to be the major participants of symptoms. However, as they grow older they tend to predict symptoms of depression in reaction to additional negative events.
Hoeksema and colleagues speculate that meaning full negative events early in childhood may give rise to negative events early in childhood may give rise top negative additional style in a development fashion, making these children more vulnerable to future depressive episodes when stressful, event occurs.
Depressed individuals feel helped and believed they lack control, do give up and become hopeless about ever regaining control (Alloy, Kelly Mineka, and Clement, 1990, Barlow 1991, 2002, Chorpitacid and Barlow, 1998). Self esteem of women tend to be based on interpersonal relationships where as a man tends to be based on personal accomplishment (Joseph et al, 1992). Lerman (1992) reminds us that Marlow did not demonstrate how the environment frequently fails to permit the gratification of basics needs of woman and other suggested groups.
Miller (1991) suggests that placing self-actualization in the context of transpersonal psychology removes its ethics and faster cross cultural comparism. In the mid 19602 Morris and social learning theorists defined self-esteem in terms of a stable sense of personal worth or worthiness, measured by self report testing
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between self esteem and depression in adolescents coping strategy. Hence the researcher investigates whether there is a significant relationship between self esteem and adolescents coping strategy. To find out if there is a significant relationship between depression and adolescent coping strategy.
1.5 Statement of the Problem
The reasons for this work is based on the inability of the adolescents to cope with aversive activities, most people’s thoughts and feelings about themselves fluctuates somewhat based on their daily experiences. These and more are they reasons for embarking on this work.
• Will there be a significant relationship between self esteem and depression among male adolescents?
• Will there be significant relationships between self esteem and depression among female adolescents?
1.6 Significance/ Relevance of the Study
This research work has its relevance to include the following
1. It will serve as a reference materials for further studies
2. This study will be relevant to the extent it will explore significant relationship between depression and self esteem.
3. The result of this study will assist both parents and teachers to understand factors and circumstance that could lead to depression and those that will enhance the development of adolescents self esteem.
4. This study stands a better chance to educate researchers and interested institutions of the remarkable difference between gender a regard to depression and self esteem.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Self Esteem: the sense of contentment and self acceptance that stems from a person’s (adolescence) appraisal of his or her own worth, significance, attractiveness, competences and ability to satisfy aspirations (Silverstone, 1992).
Depression: this is the emotional correlates of a partial or complete collapse of the self esteem. it is an affective state which is indicated by an inhabitation of function Birbing Edward (1981).
Coping Strategy: Expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimizing or tolerate stress or conflict
2.1 Theoretical Review
Theories that attempts to illuminate and increase our understanding of the two concepts of self esteem and depression are multiple and include:
2.1.2 Humanistic Theory
This theory is concerned with the concept of self and a number of personality theorists consider the self formulation. In other words the self is what the person thinks of himself or herself (Rose Marie Hogan, 1985). Humanistic psychology therefore sees man as a free being who utilizes social conditions to achieve self actualization. Sideny G. and a humanistic psychologist state that the aim of every individual is to live a health and satisfactory life by experiencing their body.
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Number of chapters is 5
PROJECT LEVEL B.sc.
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