Contribution Of Cooperative Societies In Grassroot Development
The project work on Contribution Of Cooperative Societies In Grassroot Development. The co-operative movement began in Europe in the 19th century, primarily in Britain and France although the shove porter’s society claims to be one of the world’s first co-operatives, being established in Aberdeen in 1498.
TABLE OF CONTENT ON CONTRIBUTION OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN GRASSROOT DEVELOPMENT
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Question 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
1.8 Limitation of the Study 7
1.9 Theoretical Framework 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Origin of Co-operative Society 10
2.2 Definition of Co-operative Society 16
2.3 Formation of Co-operative Society 16
2.4 Co-operatives Today 17
2.5 Co-operative society as Legal Entities 18
2.6 Identity 19
2.7 Objective of Co-operative Societies 20
2.8 Types of Co-operative Societies 21
2.9 Characteristics of Co-operative Society 22
2.10 Principle of Co-operative Society 26
2.11 Advantages of Co-operative Society 31
2.12 Limitation of Co-operative Society 32
2.13 Impact of Co-operative Society 34
2.14 The Need for Re-Engineering Co-operative Societies 35
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 39
3.2 Area of Study 40
3.3 Population of the Study 40
3.4 Samples Size and Sampling Techniques 40
3.5 Sources of Data 42
3.5.1 Primary Sources 43
3.5.2 Secondary Source 43
3.6 Method of Data Collection 43
3.7 Method of data Analysis 43
3.8 Test for Validity and Reliability 44
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Questionnaire Administration 45
5.1 Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion 61
5.2 Conclusion 62
5.3 Recommendation 62
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over the years, subsequent requires have always tried to encourage the development of the grass root. The grass root impacts seem to be the bedrock of achieving political legitimacy.
This is because the majority of policies and programmes of every administration whether democratic or autocratic are usually dominated with the concern on how to reach the grass root, In line with this assertions, successive governments in Nigeria have often dambled into the encouragement of co- operative societies as a veritable vehicle in engineering the development of the grass root (okafor 2003).
Co- operative venture are also said to enjoy the advantage of tapping local initiatives in developmental effects. Unlike local governments, however co- operative societies are voluntary and defined purely on local initiative for their finance and management (Okafor 2003).
Ajibola in Okpata (2004) noticed a general belief that co- operative being grass root initiative programmes would entice voluntary commitments among the local population. He further observed this belief has made many third world governments to resort to co- operatives as a concept for development purposes.
The contemporary co–operative society became prominent in Nigeria at the late 1970s. In bid to resource the yearning for job creation, the government encouraged the people to form co – operative societies to enhance self – employment.
The masses saw it as the instrument of government and formed co-operative societies (Okafor, 2003) OKALERU Co-operative society came into being in the year 1982. Following the then Jim Nwobodo’s led administration emphasis on co-operative societies. the people of Okaleru saw it as a way of doing the will of the government; hence the formation of Okaleru co- operative society (okaleru co – operative minute book 1982).
However it was not everybody that embraced the vision, only 32 members agreed to form Okaleru Co-operative society, led by Chief Igwe Nworie as the chairman, while Ogbu John served as secretary having Nweke Njoku as the Treasurer (Ibid).
The team first invested in Cassava Plantation and they made much gain, they invested also in rice, which boasted their income and today they are involved in varieties of business (Ibid).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The need to encourage the development of grassroot, has given rise for the creation of co-operative societies, in order that the problem of unemployment which characterized the Nigerian nation could be solved, co- operative society were introduced.
However governments seems to have placed a lot of emphasis on co- operative societies for them to achieve the desire objective, but it is not clear how the co-operative societies have contributed to grassroots development (Okpata 2004).
Moreover, the government seems to have been interfering in the affairs of co-operative societies, not allowing them to be independent, to do things on their own, and this seems to have been hindering them from embarking on some projects that would be of contribution to the development of the grassroots. This entails that some project which the co-operative society would like to embark on, that will benefit the local masses are been hindered by the government interference to their policies and programmes.
More so, the co-operative societies are usually handicapped, especially in terms of funds. They don’t usually have enough fund to carryout but what their project, and the government to not regularly finance their project, and when they do the finance given to them are always limited to some certain level.
Also co- operative societies seems to be interest groups other than development agents. This implies that most of the co-operative society members especially their governing body use co-operative society to enrich themselves, and satisfy their personnel interest, instead of being the maintain of creating, the co- operative society, rather they turns if to personal investment. And all these have been hindering the co- operative societies achieving the development of the grassroot, which it was created for.
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1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Haven highlighted the problems that called for this work the following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
i. To what extent has Nigerian government laid emphasis on co- operative societies?
ii. X-ray the evidence of the contributions of co- operative societies to the development of the grassroots?
iii. Whether the masses are exploited negatively in the guise of co – operative societies?
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following hypotheses were formulated and will be tested for the purpose of this study.
1. H0: The government does not lay emphasis on co-operative societies.
H1: The government lay emphasis on co- operative societies.
2. H0: There is no evidence of the contribution of co-operative societies to the development of the grassroot.
3. H0: The masses are not exploited negatively in the guise of co-operative societies.
H1: The masses are exploited negatively in the guide of co- operative society.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is to ascertain the impacts of co- operative societies on grassroots development with particular reference to Okaleru co- operative societies in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State – 1990 – 2010.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Some problems were however encountered in the course of data collection. The major limitations were financial constraints of the researcher which hindered him from employing enough research assistance to enable him carryout the research work efficiently and effectively.
Another major limitation where time, which inhibit the researcher from reaching all the members of the co-operative society especially those in the most interior settlements.
Illiteracy of most of the members also contributes serious constraints as some of the co-operative members cannot read or answer the questionnaire without assistance from the researchers.
The problem of bad roads in the village created a very terrible hindrance for this research work. The researcher was demobilized because vehicles are rarely seen playing those roots. This is due to the hindrance posed by Akadoro River Omege stream, Nramura stream and Igweledeoha stream that petitioned the settlement into quasi republics.
However, it was also not easy to collect information on the income of the co –operative society. The members were unwilling to give information concerning, their income because of the fear, that might be used for tax purpose. The member’s low level of education and lack of record keeping constituted a major problem in the task of collecting their data on income.
In all, these factors did not invalidate the result of this research work.
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The researcher adopts the systems theory approach as best suited to the subject of this research.
Varma (1975) believed that the generally system theory was developed in the 1920’s by Ludwing Von Berta Lanffy; a biologist. It was in 1951 that he published in article on the approach. However the theory was first elaborated by Chester I. Bernard who had written in 1938 (opera mini).
The system approach to management is an integrative theory that seeks to present and operate an organization as a unified and purposeful system composed of inter – related part.
The theory sees organization as an assemblage of units connected to inter-dependent, so as to form a complex unit. If an organization is such as whole, composed of parts in orderly arrangement; each with special functions, according to the scheme or plan, it then follows logically that the various parts or department of an organization are sub – systems that are inter – related and inter – dependent according to the plan/objective of the organization. Then if each part of the organization, performs its function efficiently in line with the goals of the organization success with be achieved Abraham son (1976)
Relating the system theory to this research works the researcher sees the co- operative society as an organization that is made up of various groups that has its required roles to play in the development of communities.
For instance, if a co-operative society embark on building a classroom, the leader of the society will map out plans and strategies for successful implementations of the project such as may include, funds, transportation of material to the site labour etc.
To raise fund for the project, certain amounts can be levied on each members of the co-operatives, they may also lack the assistance of the government and individuals. At the end of the projects, the organization goals will be achieved.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 ORIGIN OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY
The co-operative movement began in Europe in the 19th century, primarily in Britain and France although the shove porter’s society claims to be one of the world’s first co-operatives, being established in Aberdeen in 1498. The industrial revolution and the increasing mechanization of economy transformed society and threatened the livehoods of many workers. The current labour and social movements and the issue they attempted to address describe the climate at the time. (JAMES , 2003).
The first documented consumer co-operative was founded in 1769, in a barely furnished cottage in Fenwick, East Aryshire, when local Weave’s manhandled a seek of oatment into John Walker’s White – washed front room and begin selling the contents of a discount, forming the Fenwick Weave’s Society (Oakashott 1999).
In the decades that followed, several co-operative societies were formed including Lennox town friendly virtually society, founded in 1812.
By 1830, there were several hundred co-operatives, some were initially successful, but most co-operatives founded in the early 19th Century had failed by 1840. (Ibid).
However, lock Hurst lake industrial co- operative society, founded in 1832 and now Heart of England Co-operative society and Galashie and Hqwick co-operative society still trade today.
The despair and the suffering following the industrial revolution and factory system of production paved the way for social. Reformers to produce different theories about society and how it should be run. In order to put into practice what they, preached, to better the lot of the workers. Their ideas found expression in the formation of co-operative ventures. They rationalized that co-operative venture are the best way of pooling resources together in the formation and achievement of synergistic effect. The social reformers first stated as co-operative movement.
The objective of the movement was to being about a peaceful revolution to society. In the process, they aimed at replacing the existing “evil environment” with a new type of “good environment” depicting a new social order manifested in the equality of all. To hurb the ills of the system, the world of completion must be destroyed persons Like Robert Owen and his follower later known as owenities championed. this (the co-operator, 2006).
Robert Owen (1771 -1858) is considered the father of the co-operative movement. A washman who made his fortune in the cotton trade, Owen believed in putting his workers in a good environment it access to education for themselves and their children. There ideas were put into effect successful in the cotton mills of now Lamark, Scottland. It was here that the first co-operative store was opened spurred on by the success of this, he had, the idea of forming village of co-operation where workers would dragged themselves out of poverty by growing their own foods making their own clothes and ultimately becoming self governing.
He tried to form such communities in Orbison in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities finled (wikipedial co-op).
Although Owen inspired the co-operative movement, other such as Dr. will, mass king (1786 – 1863) took his idea and made them more workable and practice. King believed on starting small and realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operative for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction. He founded a monthly periodical called is the co-operative, “the first edition of which appeared on May, 1, 1828. This gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using co-operative principles. King adviced people not to cut themselves off from society, but rather to form a society, within a society, and to start with a shop because, “we must go to a shop everyday to buy food and necessaries” why then should we not go to our own shop” (Ibid).
He purposed sensible rules, such as having a weekly account audit, having 3 trustees and lot having meetings in publics to avoid the temptation of drinking profits.
In 1844, the town of Roehdale acquires it’s popularly as the town, that produced the first true, formal and successful co-operative society. The name of the society is the equitable society of Rochdale pioneers. It is this society that established what has come to be known the bedrock for the success of the society tell data (opera cit).
The application of their principle laid the foundation for mass participation in co-operative ventures. However, the co – operative movement in Nigeria did not stated as any reaction by the working class people against exploitation has been identified as being inherent in the live of the people. This however has been an informal basis. The Rochdale pioneers not until the 1930s that government sought to established co-operative along formal lined based on the principles as laid it down. Following the development in August 19, 1937, the first co-operative society was registered (opera cit).
As the mechanization of the industrial revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty. They tradesmism decide to bend together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford with lessons. From prior Failed attempts of co–operation in mind, they designed the now Earnous Rochdale principles, and over a period of four months they struggle to pool together one pound sterling per person for a total of 18 pound of capital. On December 21, 1844 they opened their store with a very meager selection of butter, sugar, flour, Oatmeal and a few candles within three months, they expended their selection to include tea and tobacco and they were soon known for providing high quality unadulterated goods.
In 1863, twenty year after the Rochdale pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England co-operative whole sales society (CWS). Though the 20th century smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish co-operative wholesale society (1973) and the South suburban co-operative society (1984).
By the 1990’s co-operative wholesale society (CWS) share of the marked had declined considerably and many came to doubt the viability of co-operative model. Co-operative wholesale society sold its factories to Andrew Regan in 1994. Regan returned in 1997 with 1.2 billion bid for CWS Werbren et al., (2005).
There were allegation of “carpet begging” new members joined simple to make money from the sale and more seriously and commercial lake. After a lengthly bettle Regans bid was off and two senior co-operative wholesale society executives dismissed and imprisoned for fraud. Regan was cleared of charges the episode recharged the co-operative commission, chaired by John Marks, made major recommendation for the co-operative movement including the organization and marketing of the retail societies.
It was in this climate that, in zoos co-operative wholesale society, merged with the UK’s second largest society, co-operative retail services it headquarters complex in made up of many different building with two notable tower blocks a new century house and the saler panel (the co-operation 2006).
In Nigeria the wood co-operative data to the beginning of mankind when used as being synonymous with co-operation –working together – in this general sense, co-operative has a very wide application and is referred to as a more co-operative. But co-operative as it is used in economic or technical sense is more restricted than thus (Chinyere 2003).
The disparity is that there were not documented set of rules, they were not labourers and they societies were short lived. The society collapse as soon as the business embarks upon is exhausted. However the modern face of co-operative society was transplanted from the western perspective (Chinyere 2005).
Co-operative society in Nigeria had no permanent members unlike western co-operative society. There is no document pointing at the exact time and location when co-operative society originated in Nigeria. The contemporary co-operative society become prominent in Nigeria at the late 1970s in a bid to rebounce the yearning for job creation, the governments encourage the people to form co-operative societies to enhance self-employment. The masses saw it as the instrument of government and formed co-operative societies (Okpata 2004).
2.2 DEFINITION OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY
Co-operative society may therefore be defined as an association of persons usually with limited means who have voluntarily joined together to achieve formation of a democratically controlled business organization, making equitable contributions to the capital required and accepting a pair share of the risks and benefits of the undertaking (oxford).
A gains it could equally be defined as a socio-economic organization where individual with the same self –need come together to contributes their money said effect to pursue and achieve this self- need in order to better their standard of living. (Okafor 2003).
2.3 FORMATION OF CO- OPERATIVE SOCIETY
A co-operative society can be formed as per the provisions of the co-operative society act of any country. At least ten persons having the capacity to enter into a contract with common economic objectives, like farming, wearing, consuming etc. can form a co-operative society. A joint application along with the bye-laws of the society and its members was to be submitted to the registrar of co-operative society of the concerned state. (Okpata 2004).
After screaming of the application and the bye-laws, the Registrar issues & certificate of Registration.
Requirements of registration are:
1. Application with the signature of all members.
2. Bye – laws of the society containing
a. Names address and aims and objectives of the society.
b. Names, address and occupation of the members.
c. Mode of admitting new members.
d. Share capital and its division.
The co-operative will have a governing body which includes;
Chairman, secretary, treasurer, members of committee or other persons empowered to under rules or bye-law to give direction in regard to the society. (ONUOHA 1986).
THE PROJECT IS AVAILABLE
NUMBER OF CHAPTERS 5
PROJECT LEVEL B.sc
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