Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools.
Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools is a project work which was carefully research on. The project provides methods of teaching, learning and other factors that may cause teaching and learning ineffective in schools.
Table Of Content Of Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools
Title page i
Table of content
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Scope of the Study
1.4 The Purpose of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Research Questions and Hypotheses
1.7 Definition of Terms.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 What is Review of Literature?
2.2 Problems Facing Teaching and Learning in Nigeria.
2.3 Reducing the Problems Militating against Teaching and Learning.
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
3.6 Development of the Instruments
3.7 Methods of Data Analyses
4.0 Results of Data Analyses
5.0 Interpretation and Discussion of Results
5.1 Interpretation and Discussion of Results
5.2 Implications of the Findings
5.3 Limitations of the Study
5.4 Recommendations of the Study
In this chapter the researcher presents the background to the study, the statement of the problem, the delimitation of the problem, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, the research questions and the hypotheses. Presented also is the definition of some technical terms.
1.1 Backgrounds of Studies
“When a man does not know to what part he saileth, then no wind is favourable (Seneca). The words of Seneca cited above underlined the importance of knowing what one is doing. Nowhere is the need to know what one is doing more critically than in the field of education.
“Education is the key to all types of development, weather individual, commercial or national. Man is able through education, to develop his latent talents and bring, them usefully to bear, on task requiring the systematic application of knowledge”(Oje, 1997).
Hence it is very important for the educational practitioner- the professional teacher- to understand from the start what “Teaching” and “Learning” are all about.Teaching and learning can, of course, go on throughout a person’s life, but formal education is primarily concerned with the socialization of the young.
A little reflection would show that the salient point of any teaching exercise is teacher activity that generates student activity.
In the words of Okororie(2005), teaching and learning are said to have originated from:
(i) When God instructed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden to increase, multiply, fill the earth and subdue it (Genesis).
(ii) The traditional instructions of parents to their offspring on conduct and morals.
Perhaps, an effective way of understanding teaching and learning is to relate it to curriculum. Walton (1973), (1976) in Yunusa (2000), defines curriculuim as that process and content, designed to affect or bring about learning of education values.
Tanner and Tanner (1975) defines curriculum as “the planned and guided learning experiences and intended outcome formulated through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experience under the auspices of the school for the learner’s continuous and willful growth in personal and social competence“.
In the above definition, it is settled that the curriculum must be taught. That teaching process. The word teaching is taken from the verb “teach”. The Webster dictionary sees it as to show, to do something, to give lessons to a student or pupil, to give lessons in a subject or head classes in the subject to provide with knowledge, or insight. The Dictionary viewed to teach as to instruct, educate, impact, direct, inform, inculcate, advise, counsel, enlighten, admonish, train and indoctrinate. The receiver of the enumerated is the student. Hence we say that teaching and learning go together. They can be likened to the two sides of a coin.
As was mentioned above, teaching and learning are inseparable, thus, learning has to do with acquisition of habits, knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is pertinent to note that whereas it is imperative that there be a learner in other to teach, it is not necessary to have a teacher in order to learn, but learning is facilitated by the encouragement and competence of the teacher.
1.2 Statements of the Problems of Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools.
Observably, students learn best when they are ready to learn; when constant use of what has been learned is emphasized and when the determined objectives are worth while and attainable taking the age of the learners, their environment and other factors into consideration. Teachers do not seem to consider these factors in their bid to impact knowledge.
1.3 Delimitation of the Problem On Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools
The scope of this research work covers the findings of the factors that militate against the effective teaching and learning in schools in Imo State. A total of ten (10) schools were randomly selected.
1.4 The Purpose of the Study On Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools
The purpose of the study is to identify the specific factors that cause ineffective teaching and learning and ascertain the ranks with respect to frequency of occurrence of the identified factors.
1.5 The Significance of the Study On Effective Teaching and Learning Methods In Schools.
The study is important because it will give light to the teachers and curriculum planners to devise a good method which will aid the teaching-learning process.
The study will also help the teachers to apply for effective comprehension of the learners.
1.6 Research Questions
(i) What are your difficulties in teaching and learning?
(ii) To what extent do you think the teaching methods are being applied?
(iii) Do you use teaching aids in teaching your lessons?
(iv) What percentage adequacy are textbooks in your school
for the presentation of the lessons?
(i) Ho1 The teaching methods being applied are significantly more sufficient than 0.5 (p<0.05)
(ii) HO2 The use of teaching aids is significantly dependent upon the instructional materials availability (p<0.05).
(iii) HO3 The percentage adequacy of the textbooks in the schools for the presentation of the lessons does not differ significantly (p<0.05).
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter will concentrate on the hindrances to teaching and learning in schools. It will further look into the ways to reducing the factors that militate against teaching and learning in schools.
2.1 What is Review of Literature
Teaching and learning process has always been faced with mirage of factors that militate against it in our schools today. Njoku (1997) seeing learning as the end product of education observed that learning is a change in behaviour.
He was of the opinion that knowledge, skills, attitudes and applications are the outcomes that form an integrated whole; formal or directed learning may be greatly facilitated when we recognize the fact that all are not equally important or attainable as objectives at any given point or stage of the learning process.
“Learning involves an active process on the part of the learner and not a passive absorption of knowledge. It is not only reading books or listening to lectures with the view of reproducing what has been read or heard through the teacher. True learning involves or entails the enrichment of experiences” (Njoku: 1997)
Printer et al; (1970) in Amadi (1997) stressed the importance of an activity programme: learning by doing direct contact with objects, project method, and self activity, the life situation in the school, as opposed to look learning or being told. In learning, there is an interaction between the leaner and his environment; and his teacher, et cetera.
“Psychologically, method adheres to the learning principals and the nature of the learners. For example, the psychological principals that all empirically based knowledge is learned through the senses gave rise to the method that calls for guided discovery using a multi-sensory approach to learning children and given the opportunity to perceive.
Phenomena in nature, that is, they observe, identify, compare, create and participate in higher cognitive, affective and psychomofor process, (Amadi, 1997)
To achieve the described goal, certain factors are available to be looked into as listed by the educational scholars
In his write up, Njoku (1987) listed:
See More Project Topics.
Methods of learning
Memory-retention and forgetting
2.1.1 The learner:
The learner is the most important agent in the learning process. The learner’s needs, interest and aspirations must be catered for in order for meaningful learning to occur. Tyler (1975) indicated that a study of the learners themselves would seek to identify needed changes in the behaviour patterns of the student which the educational institution should seek to produce.
2.1.2 The Content or Learning Material:
The content must be one that has meaning for, and is of need and importance to the learner. It must be selected in accordance with the learner’s intellectual ability. A content which has no relevance to the learner will be neglected and learning will not take place. That is, the learner and the teacher will not devote their attention to it.
2.1.3 Psychological factors:
Learning depends on the sensory functions which make perception possible, (visual, auditory, etc).
Defective vision, learning and the malfunction of certain glands, for example, will inhibit learning directly.
The influence of age, fatigue and maturation will affect learning as well.
Thomdike et al (1928) discovered that adult between twenty and forty years of age seemed to learn … more rapidly than children do. Age and experience seem to go together.
Printer et al (1970) pointed out that in order to evaluate the effects of age on learning, the age of maximum mental, power, the interest, motivation and appreciative background present at the age compared, the plasticity and general responsiveness of the nervous system.
Thomdike (1928) mapped out certain theoretical considerations pertaining to age and learning namely:
.That activity in terms of learning has greater directness and control at the later age period. Less energy is wasted at this time.
. Attention, interest and motivation seem to be present in middle age when there may be a will or an urge to learn.
. Perception learning is distinctly in favour of the nature individual as a result of a richer appreciation background of experience and
. Problem solving is easier as a result of under experience acquired by the learner at this age inspite of high intellectual ability; a person may have a defective sensory organ which may way him down during learning.
In the words of Orukotan and Oladipo (1992) “The history of education has always been associated with acquisition of facts. It is rather a social history which facts emirate from events involving the ideas of great thinkers in the context of their times. Although, one cannot accurately determine the culture setting that influenced the course of educational events but the current educational agitations can be traced back to the revolutionary ideas of those who could be referred to as the great educationist.
However, concepts dealing with the education of young children continue to remain the subject of debate. But one can say that today’s innovators are further refining the ideas first proposed by the early educators.
Rusk (1985) agrees that some deeply influential thinkers in educational history have been one time or the other, faced with socio-political problems which prompted them to develop relevant educational theories to alleviate such problems, therefore, we may still profit by reflecting on their ideas.
In this context, ideas of Luther, Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Foebel, Dewey, Montessori, Harbart, Piaget and Runner are necessary. These unforgettable leaders dreamed of a better work through education, and their ideas are in part responsible for the gains man-kind has so painstakingly made. Primary education students are mainly concerned with the impact of these educators on the education of the young child having also been aware of the influence on him.
2.2 Problems Facing Teaching and Learning in Nigeria.
Adekunle(2003) “There has been a lot of discussions and debates on ways and means of making the Nigerian educational system relevant to the needs, gools and aspirations of the populace” He added “ it could however, be observed that the concentration has been more on the secondary and tertiary levels. Not enough emphasis has been given to really examining the primary system which in actual facts forms the pivot upon which the other systems devolve and without which they cannot stand”
In Adekunle (2003) the problems are:
1. Decline in pupils’ enrolment in the public schools.
2. Inadequate funding of educational sector.
3. Decayed and dilapidated infrastructural facilities in schools.
4. Irregular school calendar due to frequent teachers’ strikes.
5. Unfavorable condition of service for teachers.
6. Proliferation of substandard and mushroom private schools.
7. Increase in number of withdrawal of students from public schools to private schools.
8. Government’s inconsistent policies on management structure of education.
9. Problem of overloading curriculum of schools.
10. Inadequate record keeping by teachers.
11. Inadequate staff development programmes for school
12. Lack of provision of guidance and counseling service for
13. Poor library service.
14. Inadequate data collections, poor planning and management
15. Problem of job satisfaction by school teachers.
2.3 Reducing the Problems Militating Against Teaching & Learning
In his lecture material titled: Introduction to Primary Education, Adekunle (2003) proffered some solutions. These problems are subject to be reduced or nipped in the bud if appropriate measures are taken. Adekunle (2003) said “in order to enhance an improved performance of teaching and learning in schools, as to realize the goals of education as contained in the national policies on education, solution to the problems:
1. Provision of adequate and sufficient fund for education.
2. There must be provision of infrastructural facilities in our
3. There should be improved and better conditions of service for
4. The laid down principals governing the establishment of
private schools should be enforced.
5. There should be proper record keeping by both teachers and
the head teachers in order to enhance accountability.
6. There should be a provision of guidance and counseling
service for students.
7. Teachers should be encouraged to engage in service training
8. head teachers should be made to attend curses, and
9. Seminars, symposia, workshops et cetera in school
administration should be held continually.
Orukotan and Oladipo (1992) supporting Adekunle(2003) argued that teachers should recognize that children have stages of readiness for specific kinds of learning and that materials and instructions should be based on these developmental stages which he classified as infancy, childhood, adolescent and youth.
Quoting John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), the duo stated that his theory, contained ideas that stressed the establishment of a permissive school environment based on the natural principles of child growth and development. Comenius insisted that play activities be included in the curriculum. He was probably the first to advocate ‘play’ as a medium for developing the child’s well being. He believed that acquisition of knowledge cannot be forced; nevertheless a skilful master (teacher) can make a child (student) eager to savour knowledge.
He emphasized the importance of learning by doing.
He set out nine (9) natural principles of teaching – learning process which reflects his concern for the inductive method that can reduce the problem(s) of learning, as follows:
1. That nature observes its own most suitable times. Hence,
subjects and methods should be skillfully arranged so as to suit the age(s) of the learners.
2. That all natural development is from within, so that the
learner should first understand things, remembering them and that teacher should be conscious of all methods of acquiring knowledge.
3. That nature begins with the universal and ends with the
particular. That is, learning task should be first taught in its most simple elements to obtain a general idea, and then developed by placing rules and examples before the learner.
4. That things that are naturally connected should be taught in
combination. That is, learning task should be learned with reference to the whole and how the parts are connected.
5. That care should be exercised in the selection of texts put
into students’ hands. This means that books and materials necessary for teaching should be held in readiness; that children’s books should be such that can be referred to as source of wisdom, virtue and piety.
6. That nature takes no short cuts but sequential. Hence,
learning experiences should be graded according to age and mental ability of learners. That is studies be graded in classes in such a way that the first may prepare way for and throw light on the subsequent ones.
7. That whatever is taught should be presented in a straight
forward and uncomplicated way. That teaching should involve presenting ideas in a concrete and direct way not merely through symbol or concepts.
8. That as nature completes its operations so the teacher
should not leave a set down course of study until it is completely understood, and
9. That nature carefully avoids obstacles and things likely to
causehurt. Therefore care should be taken in selecting students’ books and materials. That their books should be such that can rightly be termed source of wisdom virtue and pity. More importantly, the learner should not be attained to mix with bad companions either in the school or its neighborhood.
a. However, Comenius opposed the use of coercive physical and psychological punishment. He sought to enlist gentle and loving persons as teachers. He also argued that schools should be joyful and pleasant places where students learned in a humane, warm, friendly and secure environment. For him, corporal punishment and psychological concern were means of brutalizing children rather than teaching them.
Johann Fredrick Harbart (1776-1841) a German professor of philosophy and psychology is often remembered for his writings about how the mind works in learning and how the teacher can build up good character in students, that is, he constructed a balance between reason and emotion, between the present and the future, and those of man. Thus, education was a process not only imparting information, but also promoting the show good examples.
He prescribed some useful methods of teaching, believing that moral behavior was goal-seeking and so the learner had to be motivated to realize that goal, the motivation to present from ideas which needed organization. Herbert suggested that organization needed steps. These are useful as the basic for planning lesson notes in teaching. A good teacher takes into consideration the five steps which were later improved by his followers, namely:
1. Reparation: material are selected, arranged orderly to suit
the pupil’s age, aptitude ability and interests.
2. Presentation: The learning tasks and the materials are
presented logically to catch students’ interests and attentions.
3. Association: The students should relate the new materials
with previous knowledge and experience.
4. Generalization: By using the new knowledge and applying it in other areas, the children have consolidated it in their minds.
5. Application: Using this knowledge effectively and as base
for further knowledge upon what they have learnt.
In the philosophy propounded by Dewey (1859-1952) “there is no permanent absolute solution to a problem because every situation called for its own response. Experience gained in one situation may not be useful in a new situation but each new situation dictated a new problem to be solved afresh.
As a great pragmatist, Dewey agreed that thinking involves five steps; viz:
i. a felt need,
ii. analysis of the problem,
iii. alternative solutions,
iv. experimentation with these solutions until the best is found, and
v. application of this solution which should be verified in a scientific manner.
Learning, therefore, occurs through putting ideas to test of this nature.
This is the reason for providing wide opportunities to enquire purposely and to experiment. The child experiments with available opportunities provided by his society.
He believed that education is the only source of democracy. He also believed that the society makes man what he becomes and inequality within the society was as a result of its complexity which affected the growth and improvement among children (students).
He implored teachers to provide opportunities for students to learn naturally. He emphasized the role of school in the development of society. That the student (learner) receives knowledge, values and skills from school within the society and later on pass his experience to the development of that society. His method of educating the young ones stressed the importance of practical activities which he considered basic skills of reaching, writing and accuracy and advance to higher and complex experiences.
Learning, to him should take place through inquiring, activity and experiment. Significantly, children curriculum should be based on their cultural setting to enable them adapt afterward to there ever changing environment as stated in the national policy on education. (Bruner Jerome) agreed that a child (learner) can be taught any subject at any age provided the teaching strategy corresponds with the development of the child (Learner).
For the 16th century, the zeal for the improvement life of making and the reduction of factors militating against teaching and learning led to the reformation.
Martin Luther was one of the leading reformers who had faith in the power of education as a means of improving man’s welfare.
The sense realist, Comenius ‘aim’ was also to develop a natural individual in accordance with natural conditions and laws. He saw learning as a democratic right rather than a privilege reserved for a few and proposed a broad curriculum beginning with childhood, he emphasized learning by doing rather than memorizing.
Rousseau promulgated the doctrine of naturalism which grew out of his belief in the inborn goodness of man. His educational philosophy was the development of a society in which the goals of liberty, equality and fraternity could be realized by all including children. Pestalozzicocld be referred to as a developmentalist because of his role in transforming, into practice the acclaimed theorizing reforms. He believed that education was a process of development which started early and continues in a systematic fashion.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, early childhood education was given special attention by Froebel, Montessori, Dewey and other prominent educators.
Froebel had permanently enhanced the welfare of the young child when he established the first Kindergarten. While Montessori reclaimed the lives of deprived young children through her educational innovations.
Ola-Micheal(2003) in his Sociology of Education opines that modification of behaviour by means of the environment offers us renewed hope of effecting improvements. He asserts that most problems that militate against teaching and learning require a multi-disciplined approach, which means a combined operation of social scientists of all kinds. Psychology plays its part along with anthropology and sociology in the interpretation of culture.
He is of the opinion that the study and practice of education, touching life as it does at all points, must move side by side with the study of society.
It has been said that inappropriate curriculum often leads to restlessness and inattentiveness by students or to classroom disorderliness. This is particularly so when the topic being taught is either obsolete or not related to their immediate practical experience e.g. some topics on the school certificate syllabus, or too easy and hence unchallenging. Therefore, when a teacher gives fairly difficult assignment to his class, he should not be surprised to notice some disciplinary problems. As a result of the discrepancy between their intellectual capacities and the requirements, by withdrawal, sleeping off, aggressive behaviour or truancy.
Similarly, the very clever ones who find the task unchallenging may respond by exhibiting various symptoms of boredom such as reading other books or strolling out. The inappropriate curriculum may also generate cheating on examination realizing that children who cheat in one subject will not necessarily cheat in another. To remedy this, the curriculum should be made practical with topics presented in graduated sequence.
Besides, the teacher should master his subject, communicate effectively and not be too rigid in his teaching method; otherwise some students become bored, irksome, irritated and demonstrate irresponsibility and lack of interest in the lessons, Variation in teaching methods and the use of audio-visual materials such as video tapes, and other instructional technologies should be encouraged.
In terms of personality, a teacher should practise what he preaches. A teacher who frequently comes late freely in class, talks tactlessly, smokes freely in class, dresses shabbily like a core catcher, indulges in moral laxity, absents himself without reasonable excuse, exhibits insubordination to the principal or head teacher and fellow staff, ignores school regulations, should expect little or no respect from his school children.
A class without a teacher is just as good as a pandemonium. The teacher’s subject mastery, neat appearance, punctuality, emotional stability, moral uprightness, respect and obedience to constituted authority, cheerfulness accessibility and reliability are vital for the promotion of trust, respect and discipline on the part of the students and the reducing of factors militating against the effective teaching and learning in our schools (Durojaiye, 1972).
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