Level Of Awareness And Extent of Prevention Of Hiv And Aids
the level of awareness and extent of prevention of Hiv and Aids among health workers in our society is a well research project work loaded with information.
TABLE OF CONTENTS OF Level Of Awareness And Extent of Prevention Of Hiv And Aids
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – viii
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Rational/Theoretical Framework – – – – 4
1.3 Statement of Problem – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Purpose of Study – – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Research Question – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – 7
1.7 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – – 8
1.9 Scope/delimitation of the Study – – – – – 8
1.10 Operational Definition of the Terms – – – – – 8
2.1 Literature Review – – – – – – – – 10
2.2 Reason for Conducting Education Programs – – – 22
2.3 Summary – – – – – – – – 23
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 25
3.2 Population for study – – – – – – – 25
3.3 Sampling Procedure – – – – – – – 25
3.4 Instrumentation – – – – – – – – 25
3.5 Data Collection (Procedure) – – – – – – 26
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques – – – – – – 26
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – – 28
4.2 Discussion of Results – – – – – – – 33
4.3 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 34
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 35
5.2 Implication of the study – – – – – – – 35
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – 36
5.4 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 36
5.5 Suggestion – – – – – – – – – 36
References – – – – – – – – – 37
Questionnaire – – – – – – – – 42.
Every year, at least half a million people contract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health care settings through unsafe practices and the violation of core aspects related to patient’s right to health.
People every where in the world have the right to a health system that improves their health status, not one that creates grave risks to their health. Out of 35 million health care workers (HCWS) worldwide, approximately 3 million experience percutaneous exposure to blood borne viruses (example hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV) each year. (Sanni, 1999).
More than 90% of these infections are occurring in low-income countries like Nigeria and Mozambique and most are preventable. Health care workers have consistently been a target for studies involving the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV and AIDS. Health care workers who have occupational exposure to blood are at an increased risk for acquiring blood-borne infections. The level of risks depends on the number of patients with that infection in the health care facility and the precautions the health care workers observe whilst dealing with these patients. (Uwakwe, 2000).
1.2 RATIONAL/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ON LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND EXTENT OF PREVENTION OF HIV AND AIDS.
It is now generally accepted that HIV is descendant of a simian immunodeficiency virus because certain strains of SIV’s bear a very close resemblance to HIV. It is also known that certain viruses can pass between species. The most common theories, which describe about how the vital transfer between animals and humans takes place and how SIV became HIV in human are explained in details.
THE HUNTERS THEORY: It was most commonly accepted theory. It is said that the virus (SIV) was transferred to humans as a result of chimps being killed and eaten on their blood getting into cuts or wounds on the hunter. SIV on a few occasions adapted itself within its new human host and become HIV every time it passed from a chimpanzee to a man, it would have developed in a slightly different way within his body, and thus produced a slightly different strain.
THE ORAL POLIO VACCINE THEORY: In this it is said that the virus was transmitted via various medical experiment (pathogenically) especially through the polio vaccine called chat was given to millions of people in the Be3lgian Congo, Ruanada and Urundi in the late 1950s. Then it was cultivated on kidney cells taken from the chimps infected with SIV in order to reproduce the vaccine. This is the main source of contamination, which later affected large number of people with HIV but it was rejected as it was proved that only macaque monkey kidney cells, which cannot be infected with SIV or HIV were used to make chat another reason is that HIV exited in humans before the vaccine trials were carried out. (Mbanya et al, 2001)
THE CONTAMINATED NEEDLES THEORY: Africa health care professionals were using one single syringe to inject multiple patients without any sterilization in between. This could have rapidly have transferred injection from one individual to another resulting in mutation from SIV to HIV.
THE COLONIALISM THEORY: The colonial rule in Africa was particularly harsh and locals were forced into labor camps were sanitation was poor and food was scare. SIV could easily have infiltrated the labor force and taken advantage on their weakened immune systems. Laborers were being inoculated with unsterile needles against diseases such as small pox to keep tem alive and working also many of the camps actively employed prostitutes to keep the workers happy all these factors may have led to the transmission and development of AIDS as a disease.
THE CONSIPRACY THOERY: According to a survey which was carried among African Americans it was found that HIV was manufactured as part of a biological warfare programme, designed to wipe out large numbers of black and homosexual people. There is no evidence to disprove it, cannot be accepted as there were no genetic engineering techniques at the time of emergency of AIDS.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM :
As the awareness of risk of HIV infection increases amongst HCWS, concerns that are reasonable sometimes get magnified which leads to inflated fears and exaggerated perceptions of HIV and AIDS related risks. Throughout the developing world, health care providers, health facility staff, patients, and the community at large are placed at risk of contracting HIV and AIDS because of a lack of supplies, poor training, poor awareness about the danger of unsafe infection control practices, and a lack of incentive to observe good practices.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ON LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND EXTENT OF PREVENTION OF HIV AND AIDS.
– To determine the level of awareness of HIV and AIDS among health workers in Abakaliki metropolis.
– To ascertain health care worker’s daily work routine’s consistency with universal precautions guidelines.
– To find out the level of awareness on the risk perception regarding occupational exposure to HIV and AIDs
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION AND/OR HYPOTHESES
Data for present analysis were obtained from Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki Metropolis.
The HIV and AIDS hypotheses postulates that a new infections epidemic of immunodeficiency in human-acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the result of infection by an exogenous retrovirus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the hypotheses also include the following claims.
1. HIV is transmitted sexually, via semen and also blood.
2. HIV causes, in some fashion, destruction of CD4 helper lymphocytes which is taken to be the hall mark of acquired immunodeficiency.
3. Within weeks after infection, HIV induces antiviral immunity and antibodies and prior to this antiviral immunity, HIV may cause a slight mononucleosis-like illness.
4. However, after a “latency” period usually ranging between 5-10 years, although potential to overcome the body’s immune system.
5. The destruction of CD4 helper lymphocyte usually accompanied by an increase in cytotoxic CD8 lymphocytes, causes a breakdown in cell-mediated immunity, leaving the immune system vulnerable to various opportunistic infection which would not normally be serious.
6. This acquired immunodeficiency is the basis for about 30 previously known disease, including PCP, kaposis sarcoma, tuberculosis, candiasis, dementia, diarrhea, and cervical cancer given the inability of HIV and AIDS hypothesis to make accurate predictions     and the inability of the main stream AIDS researchers to provide plausible biological explanations of how HIV is supposed to kill T – cells  or perhaps more accurately, the ability of mainstream AIDS research to provide a bewildering away of hypothetical explanation    it is difficult to state what is meant by the HIV and AIDS hypothesis indeed, John Maddox, former editor of nature magazine, has given a simple explanation of the hypotheses. HIV causes AIDS, in some manner not understood most of those infected will develop the disease  not that Maddox’s cryptic version of the hypotheses contains almost no real content and is virtually worthless in terms of predictive or explanatory power.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ON
This study brought to the fore the constraints that health care worker’s faced in adhering to the gold standard of universal precaution measures. This study has also provided information that can be utilized by hospital managers to facilitate safe work environment for health care services consumers. Health management authorities and officials and health care worker’s can use findings from the study as a basis for requesting for resources from appropriate authorities, governmental and non governmental or donor agencies to meet the resources and funding needs health institutions.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The survey sample was not a probability sample and therefore not representative of all health care workers in Abakaliki, therefore, the study findings should be generalized with caution. In addition social desirability bias could have influenced HCW’s responses in a number of area.
1.8 SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY ON LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND EXTENT OF PREVENTION OF HIV AND AIDS.
1. In this research, the researcher is to find out the level and extent of awareness and prevention of HIV and AIDS among health workers in Abakaliki metropolis.
2. The health workers of interest are those in a health institution within Abakaliki metropolis.
3. This health workers include all the categories of health workers ranging from the clinical and non clinical staff.
4. Clinical staff are those health practitioners like doctors, nurses, laboratory scientists, pharmacists, medical social work. While non clinical are those who are not core health professional but are needed for day today running of hospital Administration.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Awareness – having knowledge of something.
Categories – a class of things with shared characteristics.
Clinical – is to do with the treatment of patients.
Endemic – a term applied to a disease that for most the time is rare in a community but
suddenly spreads rapidly to affect a large number of people.
HCW – health care workers
HIV – human immunodeficiency virus.
Hypotheses – a proposed explanation based on limited evidence, used as a basis for
Illness – a disease or period of being ill.
Immunodeficiency – failure of the body’s ability to resist infection.
Infection – the establishment in the body of disease causing micro-organisms.
Inoculation – to vaccinate
Lymphocytes – any one of a group of white blood cells that are of crucial importance to
the immune system.
Mutation – a change in cells DNA
Non clinical – those who are not care health professional
Opportunistic infection – infection by organisms that rare serious or wide spread effect in
people of normal health but which can cause serious illness.
Postulate – assume to be true as a basis for theory or discussion.
Sterilization – the complete destruction or removal of living organisms usually to prevent
spread of infection.
Strain – tearing or stretching of muscle fibres as a result of suddenly pulling them too far.
Vaccine – a preparation given to induce immunity against infectious disease.
CHECK OUT OTHER TOPICS.
Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1983, the infection has attained epidemic proportion globally. HIV aids is an extra ordinary kind of crisis, it is both an emergency and a long-term development issue. Tumer and Unal (2000) assert that (HIV and AIDS) is one of the most complex health problems of the 21st century.
Despite increased funding, political commitments and progress in expanding access to HIV treatment, the AIDS epidemic continues to outplace every global response.
Today the AIDS epidemic has become a pandemic disease that is threatening the world population. As the HIV and AIDS pandemic continues to spread around the world at an, alarming rate, the number of people with this disease is been excepted to grow significantly by the end of this decade (ICI 2002).
Moreover according to UNAIDS (2006) an estimated 24.7 million people are living with HIV and AIDS in sub Sahara Africa. (Meyer, 2003) claims that HIV and AIDS which is acclaimed the fourth-leading cause of death world wide is estimated to have claimed 25 million lives since the beginning of the epidemic.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a viral disease caused by Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is usually found in the body fluids like blood, semen, vagina fluid and breast milk of infected persons. The virus can be transferred from one infected person to another, mostly through sexual intercourse and sharing of unsterilized instruments like blades, knives and syringes which had once been used by infected person (Olaleye, 2003).
Moreover, various campaigns have been mounted by both governmental and non governmental association (NGOS) to curtail the spread of HIV and AIDS. (Olaleye 2003) posits that these campaigns focused on measures to prevent HIV and AIDS infection. The measures include total abstains from sex, use of condom to avoid infections from unprotected sexual intercourse, screening of blood meant for transfusion, keeping to one sexual partner, use of sterilized sharp object like blades, knives, needles/syringe sharing and barbing instruments, intending couples are also advised to do HIV and AIDS test before being joined in marriage. The introduction to the guideline provides a description of HIV and AIDS and the transmission of HIV. Within the context, prevention programme are very important in changing the extent and the shape of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. There are many possible types of prevention programmes, but in the work place context there are few which have been shown to be successful if they are implemented correctly.
The effective diagnosis, treatment and prevention of STDS is one of the more important ways in which transmission of HIV can be reduced. These prevention programme include:
• Awareness programme
• Education programme
• Condom distribution programme
• Universal precautions
• STD management.
In addition to these programmes, there are a number of practical steps that your organization can undertake to reduce the risk of HIV transmission among employees. These are discussed in the section risk reduction programmes.
The effective diagnosis, treatment and prevention of STDS is one o the more important ways in which transmission of HIV can be reduced. It is thus one of the more important prevention techniques.
However, the issue of STDS is discussed the section on wellness management. This is because there are important elements of care related to both HIV and STDS. These include counseling and notifying partners. The aspect of prevention programmes listed above are not successful if implemented only in isolation. Their effectiveness lies in the integration of individual aspect into one prevention progrmme.
A condom distribution programme will fail dismally if it is not accompanie by raising awareness and using education to change attitude towards exiting sexual practices.
Providing information alone, without developing skills and confidence in people to enable them to protect themselves, will not result in any behavior changes required for reducing the risk of HIV transmission.
(1) RISK REDUCTION PROGRAMMES
The introduction to the guidelines highlighted the socio-economic conditions that increased the risk of HIV transmission. It is important for you to look at the extent to which your organization creates these factors through its housing policy, recreation possibilities, support for families of employees and so on.
Therefore, to start reducing the risk of transmission, your organization’s HIV and AIDS and STD committee must critically assess its role in promoting these factors.
(2) AWARNESS PROGRAMME
People need to be well informed about AIDS, so they can understand clearly how the virus is transmitted and what activities and interactions are safe. This in itself is undoubtedly not enough to promote widespread, effective behavior change but is an essential part of what is needed greater understanding and awareness should remove irrational fears and lead to supportive attitudes towards infected people. If people leaving with HIV and AIDS can except to be accepted and supported, they need no longer keep their diagnosis a close secrete. They also need to feel that they are not going to be blamed for having become infected in the first place.
Creative awareness – raising campaigns are an important component of a prevention programme. Awareness programmes should provide information that is relevant, accessible in terms of language and literacy levels of employees and which is culturally sensitive. The HIV and AIDS and STD committee has a crucial role making sure that these principles are kept. The information should also provided on an ongoing basis in order to make any impact.
Awareness – raising activities can include exhibition and theatre production on HIV and AIDS and STDS themes, campaigns liked to world AIDS Day, national condom week or AIDS memorial day awareness – raising activities are valuable in that they create awareness around HIV and AIDS and STDS in an informative, fun, non-threatening way. Awareness – raising activities can also be including in open days or induction days for new employees and their families. Community members may also be included in awareness campaigns, thereby increasing the number of people reached by the programme.
Education programme go beyond just providing information through campaigns education programme aim to provide people with skills that can help them adopt behaviours that will protect them from HIV and STDS (example negotiating and assertiveness skills). Education is a two – ways process of sharing information and understanding beliefs, attitude and feelings.
REASON FOR CONDUCTING EDUCATION PROGRAMS
1. Preventing the spread of HIV and STDS there is presently no vaccine or cure for HIV and AIDS. The most effective way to slow down the spread of HIV and AIDS is to reduce the rate of transmission from infected to uninfected people. The first step towards lowering a person’s risk of becoming infected is providing knowledge and awareness of HIV. Knowing about and practicing safe sex is the best way of remaining HIV negative, since the most common way of being infected with HIV is through sexual intercourse.
HIV and AIDS education can take place most effectively in the work place, even through most HIV transmission occurs outside the work place. The work place is where employees spend a large part of their time, where they are trained and where they interact with their peers.
However, HIV may be transmitted in the work place through contact with another person’s blood (for example, if there has been a work place accident) education programmes should include training around what to do if there is an accident in the work place and how employees can perform first aid and handle blood spills safely in an emergency.
STDS are important in HIV and AIDS epidemic because there is a greater chance of a person being infected with HIV if they already have an STD because STDS are curable, STD prevention and treatment is an effective way to slow down spread of HIV and AIDS. Preventing unfair discrimination against employees with HIV. Many people experience intense confusion and anxiety about how HIV could affect their job security and their relationship in the work place (with managers and colleagues) and outside it (with their families). Many people have heard of others who have lost their jobs or pensions because of they have HIV. Some people living with HIV and AIDS have been discriminated against by the3ir employers, co-workers, friends or family. These irrational response and prejudices and the fear they produce in employees can have a serious impact on productivity and industrial relations. Fear and prejudice can be reduced by appropriate education around the employer’s attitude to HIV and AIDS, the fact of transmission and the right of employees in relation to HIV.
ii. Facilitating the fear management of employees living with HIV.
An education programme for employees at all levels of a company or organization, including managers, can greatly facilitate the management of those employees who have HIV. Taking active step to prepare for the full impact of HIV and AIDS will allow a more reasoned, appropriate and effective response.
ii. Demonstrating management’s commitment to address HIV and AIDS in the work place. Management support for the HIV and AIDS programme demonstrates that management is sincere about addressing HIV and AIDS in the workplace, the welfare of employees and all the well-being of the company. In this context, management should provide a budget specifically for the HIV and AIDS and STDS programmes.
2. Contents of a successful education program in this section we highlight some of the characteristics of a successful HIV and AIDS and STDS education programme: Education should be on-going, rather than a once- off or annual training course. This allow the effectiveness of the programme to be monitored as it takes place and the content changed as necessary. It also keep people thinking about HIV and AIDS, so that the issue remains accepted and visible in the workplace.
Education and awareness – raising around HIV can easily be integrated into existing training courses such as industrial relations, personnel management courses, first aid, occupational safety, literacy, induction and supervisory and management courses.
This entails no extra costs if HIV – related examples are used to get people thinking about how HIV could affect their situation in working place.
Education should take place in small groups in an informal workshop setting, so that employees feel comfortable to ask questions and discuss their feelings openly. Peer educators can be used almost my workplace, whether small or large. Peer educators are employees who are trained to deliver HIV and AIDS education and or counseling to fellow workers.
Peer educators should be volunteers or be selected by their colleagues, but should have certain qualities such as empathy, maturity, good communication skills and popularity among their colleagues. Peer educators are well placed to initiate a condom distribution programme.
Another source of peer education is contact with peer with HIV from within or outside the workplace. Contact with peer with HIV can remove myths and fears very effectively, but should be handled very sensitively, in small groups and only as one part of a comprehensive education programme. This type of education is only possible if some employees with HIV are prepared to disclose their HIV status. The specific content of an education programme should be decided in consultation with the HIV and AIDS committee and or outside agencies which specialize in workplace HIV and AIDS and STDS education.
3. PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS
These principles should underline any education programme that you implement, but they can also be used to evaluate your programme and other programme to evaluate your programme and other programme offered to you by another organization.
• Start where people are, with their existing knowledge, beliefs, fears and hopes, attitudes and practices.
• Take into account the socio-economic and cultural context of people’s lives.
• Correct information in a supportive way.
• Help people to identify, understand and articulate their own problems and to explore opportunities for change and development.
• Help people express their feelings and describe their own experiences.
• Do not try to take responsibility away from people by telling them what to do. The decision must be theirs.
4. SELECTING AND TRAINING PEER EDUCATORS.
The age, language, social and work status of peer educators should correspond, to some degree, with those of their co-workers. For examples, each peer educator could be responsible for education in his/her specific section or floor of the workplace.
Peer educators need to be highly motivated since they perform a difficult tasks on a voluntary basis. Group training sessions will help them remain motivated through sharing the experiences and problem they encounter. You should consider cultural and gender issues when selecting peer educators. Some of the issue relating to HIV and AIDS and STDS are highly personal and people may only be comfortable discussing them with some of the same gender and cultural back ground.
The language is used by the peer educators must be taken into account: people need to be educated in language that they feel comfortable using.
Peer educators should be trained as necessary either in house or externally through an AIDS training organization.
Family members of employees or other outside the workplace may also work as peer educators, working in the boarder community to educate sex workers, school children and non working mothers.
5. ISSUE TO BE COVERED IN AN EDUCAITON PROGRAMS.
There are a number of issue that should be covered within an education programme.
i. TRANSMISSION OF HIV
• How HIV can be transmitted between people
• How HIV is not transmitted; and
• Most common mode of transmission com protected sex.
• The roe of STDS in transmission of HIV and AIDS.
• The importance of using condoms during treatment.
• Informing your partner that you have and STDS.
• The importance of partner being checked or treated too (see the STD Diagnosis and treatment section).
iii. SAFE SEX
• Advantages of safer sex for preventing HIV and AIDS, STDS and pregnancy.
.Problem people may encounter in introducing safe sex into a relationship.
• How to deal with a partner who does not want to practice safe sex.
• Communication around safe sex, and
• Techniques for safe sex (including the importance of using condoms and non-penetrative sex.
• The role of condoms in preventing HIV and AIDS, STDS and pregnancy.
• How to use a condom and
• Practice in applying a cond. The use of both male and female condoms should be explained.
v. ATTITUDES, MYTHS AND MISCONCPETIONS.
There are many myths and misconceptions about HIV and AIDS and STDS should be addressed by an education programme and universal precautions.
vi. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES
Information on the rights and obligations of employers and employees with regard to HIV and AIDS and STDS should be provided and discussed.
vii. WOMEN’S RIGHTS
In educating women about their right with regard to sexuality and reproduction, specific effort should be made:
• To provide women with skills for employment
• To empower women to make their own informed decision about their bodies and their sexuality.
6. LINK WITH EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OUTSIDE
Many organization provide HIV and AIDS and STD educational materials and or educators who will visit workplaces on a regular or once-off basis. These organizations may also help an organization to develop an HIV and AIDS policy or a workplace programme.
• You should be aware of possibility of accident transmission of HIV and AIDS in the work place when you are developing your HIV and AIDS and STD programme.
• This may occur when either the victim of the accident or the person’s who gives first aid has HIV.
• Any accident or blood spillage should be considered a possible source of infection since in the work place every Peron’s HIV and AIDS status is not known.
• It is very important to make sure that the necessary equipment and skills are available to protect all workers. These should be applied consistently with any accident be applied consistently with any accident and or injury no matter what the person’s HIV status is.
• Universal infection control procedures also control the spread of other dangerous infection such as hepatitis.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INFECITON CONTROL
• Those giving first aid should assume that all patients have HIV and should avoid any contact with blood or other body fluids. This is done by covering any cuts or some with water proof plasters and wearing plastic or latex gloves. If no gloves are available the hand can be covered with plastic bags tied around the writs. If blood does not get into the skin it must be washed off in hot soapy water as soon as possible.
• Blood spills on floor or others surfaces should be treated with a disinfectant (for example, bleach) before being wiped up with absorbent paper.
• Soiled clothing or fabrics should be boiled in water for 20 minutes, placed in the sum to dry and ironed.
• All work place should include universal precautions in an induction course or manual given to new employees if a first aid or safety courses already exits for workers training in the use of universal precautions can be easily included.
• A first aid kit must be available and should contain the following
• Plastic or later gloves
• Water proof plasters
• Cotton wool
• Employees who are most a risk of being exposed to HIV at work are health care personnel. However, in health care facilities, universal precautions should already be established.
It is important to remember that condom distribution must be done as part of an education programme. Employees who are well informed about the function of condoms and how to use them will not be offended by their sudden appearance on work place. Peer educators can play important roles in initiating discussions on the advantage of using condom distribution programme.
Many people are self conscious about being seen buying or taking condoms from a dispenser or from a health worker. Various creative strategies for making condoms from a dispenser or form a health worker. Various creative strategies for making condoms from a dispenser or from a health workers. Various creative strategies for making condoms more acceptable and accessible can be used, such as a workplace advertising campaign or industrial theatre. Different ideas should be listed by the HIV and AIDS committee and investigated thorough to find best ones.
A multi-faceted strategy might be possible in a large workplace. This strategy could include free distribution at the work place clinic, social marketing through condom vending machines and peer educators who distribute condoms. Smaller work place may appoint a specific person who can distribute condoms confidentially or may simply choose to provide information to employees about near by outlets (for pharmacy).
An increase in the number of condom distributed occurring together with a decrease in the incidence of STDS, could indicate that employees are changing their sexual practices as a result of the education programme.
ISSUES TO CONSIDER WHEN SETTING UP A CONDOM DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMME.
i) AVAILABILITY OF CONDOMS
Condom are available free of charge from various outlets such as family planning clinics and the department of health. They can also bought from commercial distributors such as pharmacies. The list of resources provided t the end of the document include the address of the ATICCS where condoms can be accessed.
ii) SOCIAL MARKETING
You should carefully consider whether condoms should be distributed free of charge or whether a nominal fee will be charge. One important advantage of charging for the condoms is that people will tend to make better use of them, when compared to free distribution. Social marketing of condoms include encouraging people to use condoms affectively and consistently through:
• Education and information around condoms and safe sex for example, done by peer education.
• Providing accessible condoms where and when they are needed at a cost that is affordable.
• Targeting information and access to condoms at people in the boarder community (such as sex workers and indeed all women).
• Using tried and tested advertising techniques to sell the concept of condom use.
• Marketing both the male and female condoms as this provides women with more control over their use.
LOCATIONS AND TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION POINTS
iii) There are many places and ways to distribute condoms and the successful strategy is different for each work place.
THE ROLE OF HEALTH WORKERS IN PREVENTION
A number of step can be taken to involve health workers in the HIV and AIDS and STD prevention programme if the workplace has a clinic offering basic health services or has links to a public primary health care clinic.
STD treatment can be integrated into basic health services if these are offered in workplace. The health workers should be trained in diagnosing and treating or referring STD cases and also in counseling about safe sex.
Health workers can also be responsible for maintaining statistics on the number of STD cases seen every month in the work place. Clinics can be useful condom distribution points, although they should not b the only ones. Health workers can monitor the number of condoms distribution through the clinic. This is another way to measure the impact of an HIV education programme, though it should not be used only its own. In other words, even if large numbers of condoms are distributed, there is no guarantee that they are being used properly or at all.
2.2 INFORMATION IMPACT ON HIV AND AIDS AWARENESS
Information increases the level of certainty in any human decision process, little wonder, Edewor 2010) posits that information is indispensable for human development. Likewise (Nwafor Orizu, 2003) while describing in the rural areas in Nigeria, avers that oral sources like face to face interaction, radio, television and written sources like newspaper and magazines aims to facilitate rural information as a way of eliminating ignorance and superstition.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, more conveniently known as “AIDS”, has resulted in the greatest public health concern since the tuberculosis epidemics of the early 1900’s.
AIDS is a global pandemic. Viral infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative factor in the development of AIDS.
HIV is a blood – borne virus and commonly is transmitted through exchange of body fluids during sexual contact, through parenteral exposure or foetal exposure to blood, and through select body fluids from an infected individual with HIV.
Occupational transmission to health care workers is possible through needle sick injuries or other exposure to HIV infected materials. It cannot be an understatement, therefore, that a good understanding of the disease and the universal precautions guidelines issued by the centre for disease control (CDC) regarding the handling of blood, body fluids and contaminated instruments, would go a long way in reducing occupational transmission in the hospital environment.
Health care workers need to avoid any contact wit potentially infected fluids (blood, semen, urine or faeces) by away wearing gloves, masks, goggles, foot wear etc, when undertaking clinical procedures.
The fear of AIDS and its consequences rank number one as the greatest medical anxiety in our population in recent times, and for as long as there is no specific and effective cure, our main line of defence must remain an educated public.
AWARENESS ON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HIV AND AIDS: The symptoms of HIV vary, depending on the individual and what stage of the disease you are in.
EARLY STAGE OF HIV SYMPTOMS: Within 2 – 4 weeks after HIV infection, many but not all, people experience flu like symptoms, often described as the worst flu ever. This is called “acute retroviral syndrome “ARS) or primary HIV infection.
SYMPTOMS CAN INCLUDE
i Fever (this is the most common symptom)
ii Swollen glands
iii. Sore throat
vi. Muscles and joint aches and pains
These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks (Gwarzo, 1998).
However, you should not assume you have HIV if you have any of these symptoms can be cause by other illness. Conversely, not everyone who is infected with HIV develops ARS. many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for 10 years or more (Sanni, 1999).
You cannot rely on symptoms to know for sure if you are infected with HIV is to get tested. If you think you have recently been exposed to HIV- if you have had oral, vagina or anal sex without a condom with a known HIV positive person or a partner whose HIV status you do not know or shared needles to inject drugs, get an HIV test traditional HIV tests detects HIV antibodies (Sanni, 1999). But during this early stage your body is not yet producing these antibodies. A new HIV test was approved in 2013 that can detect the presence of HIV in your body during this stage of infection. So no matter where you get tested, it is very important to your provider know that you may have been recently infected with HIV and you would like to be tested for acute HIV.
2.3 THE CLINICAL LATENCY STAGE
After the early stage of HIV infection, the disease moves into a stage called the clinical latency stage. “latency” means a period where a virus is living or developing in a person without producing symptoms (Ogunnbeku, 1999). During the clinical latency stage, people who are infected with HIV experience no HIV – related symptoms, or only mild ones. (This stage is sometimes called “asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection).
During the clinical latency stage, the HIV virus reproduce at very low levels, although it is still active if you take antiretroviral therapy (ART) you may live with clinical latency for several decades because treatment helps keep the virus in check (Wallacla, 1989).
For people who are not on ART, this clinical latency stage lasts an average of 10 years, but some people may progress through this phase faster.
It is important to remember that people in this symptom free period are still able to transmit HIV to others even if they are on ART, although ART greatly reduces the risk of transmission.
PROGRESSION TO AIDS: Symptoms if you have HIVF and you are not taking HIV medication (antiretroviral therapy) eventually the HIV virus will weaken your body’s immune system. The onset of symptoms signals the transition from the clinical latency stage to AIDS (Ozoemena, 1992).
During this late of HIV infection, people infected with HIV may have the following symptoms:
a. Rapid weight loss
b. Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
c. Extreme and unexplained tiredness
d. Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits
e. Groin or neck
f. Diarrhoea that last for more than a weak
g. Sores of mouth, arms or genitals
i. Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelids, memory loss, depression and other neurologic disorders.
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