This Project and Research Work outlines the Political Marginalization of Women in our society and the various Implications involved.
Content of Political Marginalization of Women
- Statement of Problem
- Purpose of the Study Political Marginalization
Women are seen as the sources of stability in the families, which are the society’s bedrocks of the nation.
Unfortunately majority of women in some developing countries carry out the burden of discrimination and poverty.
There are efforts to end the discrimination against women and ensure their equal participation in the society.
Marginalization of women has been pervasive in the underdeveloped countries; the role of women in these countries has been seen as subordinate to men even at home, school and place of work. However, if evidently clear that women are good managers at home which is also applicable to the state and nation at large due to their women should be given the chance to rule and be involved in politics. They deserve political rights and liberty to show case their potentialities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Most nations of the developing or underdeveloped countries have defined the role of women in the society to be subordinate to the men hence a high percentage of women are been discriminated from participating in most of the activities in the society. Most women are marginalized from participating in political development plan and decision making in the society and this act is of the high increase at the grass root level where women are deprived of their rights to participated politically with their male counterpart.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This research work is aimed or designed to examine the political marginalization of women and the implication towards the grassroots development in Bayalsa state. Thus, the objectives of this project are:-
1. To examine the causes of marginalization of women in the society
2. To analyze the effect of the problem and the implication towards the grassroot development in Bayelsa state.
3. To proffer recommendation on how best to combat or tackle the problem of gender inequality and women marginalization in the society.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research is aimed at creating an enabling condition of women participation in political development plan in the society. There is also need to inform the general public and government on the impact or influence of women in the developmental process of any society when given an equal opportunity with their male counterpart. The study also focuses at examining the likely causes of gender inequality and political marginalization of women and the implications for the grass root development in Bayelsa state in particular. The research work is important to both the general public and the government in understanding the implication of women marginalization.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to Ogbia local government area in Bayelsa State with its local government area in Ogbia town. This work focuses on the political marginalization of women and its implication at the grass root concerning a period of 2000-2006.
Again, finance was a major constraint in carrying out this project due to the inadequate of funds so largely relied on magazines, newspapers, seminar papers, journals and also consultation of personnel’s in form of oral interview to entrant relevant information concerning the subject matter.
Also time was another factor that limited the expansion of this work. Notwithstanding, the data collected for the study were adequate for the understanding of the research work.
1.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF POLITICAL MARGINALIZATION OF WOMEN
1. Implication: A thing that is suggested or implied.
2. Grass Root: These is where the ordinary people in the society contrast with those who have decision policy in the state.
3. Gender Bias: This is a condition of being male or female but for the purpose of this research work gender bias refers to discrimination against women.
4. Marginalization: This is the neglect of opportunity right due to some group of people or persons.
5. Politics: According to the Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary, it simply means matter’s concerned with acquiring or exercising power within a group of person or organization. Also it is an act of government political principles on opinion and method of a state or political affairs of a state.
6. Political Marginalization of Women: This is the process where women are neglected and are not given the due right to participate in local government, state and national decision making process.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS
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1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
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Since the advent of colonialism in Africa, women have always been exposed to varying forms of discrimination due to the simple fact of their femaleness which ought to have been understood on the basis of its mutual usefulness. It is observed that most African countries have not had specific laws or policies to stem the control of gender differences. It is pertinent to begin this chapter with on all round historical perspectives of the subject in its analysis, we shall consider it under subheadings orderly arranged for every understanding.
2.1 SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS
To a considerable extent, gender inequalities have been a subsidiary issue in Nigeria society. The traditional social structures has been offering limited incentives for amending the existing distribution of power between men and women. As observed by Nmadu, the Nigeria society has been significantly dotted with peculiar cultural practices that are potently harmful to women’s emancipation, such as early/forced marriage, wife-inheritance and widowhood practices. Moreover, to such unequal social and gender relations needs to be transformed in order to take women out of want and poverty.
Therefore what ever socio-cultural norms that deny women equal rights with men will also render women more vulnerable to physical, sexual and mental abuse.
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2.2 COLONIAL FACTORS
The colonial conception of gender conspicuously marginalized the women folk, while it privileged the men. Gaidzwanwa (1992) asserts that domestic education as enshrined in the ideology of house notification which was a social engineering initiative designed to create suitable wives for indigenous colonial employees further disempowered women socially, and economically. Subsequently, the colonial exclusion of women from most sectors of the formal labour market for domestic works engagement which were largely unrewarded has been observed as one of the most formidable factors responsible for women’s marginal significance in contemporary Africa societies.
2.3 POLITICAL FACTORS
Adherence to discriminatory gender ascription persisted after the end of colonial rule in Nigeria. The post independence political elite deliberately weakened women organizations.
As observed by Mama (1997:71), gender blindness has meant that until recently the differential impact of colonialism on African men and women has not been taken into consideration.
2.4 ECONOMIC FACTORS
The economic sector of our society is one area where discrimination against women has been richly pronounced. According to the CEC Report (2007) the role of women in employment and economic activities is often underestimated because most of the women work in the informal sectors, usually productivity and incomes, poor working conditions, with little or no social protection.
However, the denial of women’s inheritance and land rights has made their economic participation considerably constrained and also by implicating their educational aspiration.
2.5 EDUCATIONAL CONSTANTS AND WOMEN SOCIO ECONOMIC DIS-EMPOWERMENT
With the 2005 millennium development goals first deadline for attainment of gender equality in primary and secondary school’s enrolment already missed, the ability of women and girls to empower themselves economically and socially by going to school or by engaging in productive and civic activities is till being constrained by their responsibility for everyday tasks in the household division of labour (commission of European reports communities 2007).
However this inequality has it’s root in the colonial system of education which was primarily designed towards meeting the manpower need of the colonial government that obviously underrate women from educational and economic opportunities.
2.6 EVOLUTIONARY CONTRADICTIONS AND SCHOLARS OF WOMEN POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
It was in the eighteen century as a result of the outbreak of liberalism which believes in the strong sense of individualism that generated the technology of political equality. As a consequence of the outbreak major issues of freedom were discussed under three classes; the which confirms the right to nature, dignity of life and political freedom happen to be the bedrock of discuss here which cut across the right to vote and be voted for, and at last was economic freedom preached under economic individualism.
2.7 THE SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SUPERIORITY
A school of though argued that biology is desting, hence human nature on society is largely and entirely dictated by the demands of human physical nature and there is a basic which is an immutable difference between masculine and feminism, physical and psychological, male and female. This theory which was propounded by Blubbery in 1904 was popularized as the fundamental of patriarchal superiority. This school argued that the female’s are inferior and justified their subordination.
2.7.2 SOCIAL FEMINISM
Legal introduced the dialectical consciousness, raised the motion of passion of an individual to control his own goals and achievement. In this school, it deals with the application of how the society moves from stage to stage from primitive to enhancing liberal and radical theories that explained women operation which widens the mixist theory. The school of feminism damoured for the abolition of both class and gender powers which called for the over theory of the current social order known as capitalist patriarchy in the situation where men dommate. This school proposed for total femmist system.
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