Reducing The Effect Of Strike Action.
Reducing The Effect Of Strike Action.It has been observed that strike action does not exist on its own. It is the product of discrepancies and disorderliness existing from families, schools, offices, companies, parties, business associations and a good number of instituted authorities. (Okororie, 2005). According to Ogide (2004) it is as a result of discontent’. ‘Discontent’ here implies when someone or a group is unhappy or not satisfied with the condition he or it experiences in any given situation.
In the case of service, strike erupts when the a boss refuses to fulfill his promises to his subordinates thereby making the job being done by the employees unsatisfactory and uninteresting.
David (1977), “from the view point of a manager or supervisor who has responsibility for leading a work group, human relations is the integration of people into a work situation that motivates them to work together productivity, co-operatively, and with economic, psychological, and social satisfaction”. As Keith Davis points out, this approach focuses on positive or successful human relations, which it is presumed people seek when they interact.
Defined in this context, human relations is motivating people in groups to develop teamwork that effectively fulfills their needs and achieves organizational objectives.
An essential difference between human relations is a work situation and in a purely social situation is that the latter may be changed more readily. If friends disagree seriously, they may discuss or argue the issues until they are resolved. If the disagreement is not satisfactorily resolved, they may part company. Such mobility is not ordinarily a real option for workers when they disagree with their boss. A worker may quit a job or a supervisor may fire an employee when they cannot resolved a disagreement. But this mode of dealing with a problem usually carries economic as well as emotional penalties for one or the other of the parties.
When human relations is defined in terms of a work situation, it becomes considerably more complex than the “how to get along” concept that may suffice in social situations, because the element of achieving both results and personal satisfaction is included.
“Human beings are complex and diverse in their talents, goals, ambitions, and values, as organizations vary in size, wealth, profitability, geographic dispersion, economic functions, and technological innovation” (Carvel,, 1980).
Today many workers – young and old are concerned about more than the internal climate of the organizations for which they work; they are concerned about the impact of their company’s policies and products on the development of war material and weapons, environmental degradation or oppression of the poor or of minority groups.
These broad social issues aside, a person working in a small establishment is confronted by an entirely different set of activities and constraints than a person working in a giant corporation. Although people working in both large and small organizations share certain common needs and drives, the means of satisfying these needs on the job are seriously affected by the type of activity and the kind of management leadership found in the firm in which they work.
The rules and procedures used to control employees’ activities in a large company one usually more formal than those found in small ones; yet they may not be a difficult to cope with the constant surveillance of a small shop owner.
Jobs vary greatly in their mental and physical requirements of the job, bore down may result because of lack of stimulation and challenge. Conversely; if the demands of the job exceed the abilities and/or the ambitions of the workers, the job may be frustrating and defeating. Work itself can be a great source of satisfaction to the individual as along as other social and physical conditions found on the job are not major detractors. (Carvel,, 1980).
These and other factors lead to the conclusion that lack of job satisfaction can trigger strike action. Due to unsatisfactory job situation, labour unionism string up here and there.
As the United State became more industrial and urbanized, the workers found that uniting in labour union provided a means of furthering their social, political, and economic interest.
The unionization of industrial workers often caused violent antiunion activity on the part of employees. Despite this resistance by many employers, the great impetus of the labour movement in this country came as a result of the passage of the National Labour Relations Act in 1935. This act, often referred to as the Wagner Act, affirmed the right of labour to bargain collectively on matters of wages, hours and conditions of employment while prohibiting coercive action against union members by employers. During the two decades that followed, unions gained in economic, political and financial strength.
Membership in unions reached over 18 million by the end of the 1950s, and often the unions’ position was militant and aggressive because of its strength. Since the early 1960s, unions have met some difficulty in organizing the labour force in white color occupations, and the labour movement among agricultural workers that began its momentum in the 1970s has been afflicted with strife and jurisdictional disrupts among competing unions.
At the same time, organized labour has been faced by warning numbers in their industrial ranks. (Carvell, 1980). Despite some of the problems they face internally, unions are definitely a real and vital force in industrial society, and debate regarding the strength of unions is academic from the standpoint of human relations. What is important is the fact that the presence of a lbour union in a firm presents a whole set of real and potential human problems. The reasons that workers chosen either to join voluntarily or to abstain from labour union activities stem from many social and personal motives, both national and emotional.
However, where unions are present in the work situation, knowledge of the problems unions have faced in the past and are presently confronting helps one to understand their positions on many factors concerning the work place. In this research work, the researcher is confronted with strike action and how best it can be reduced using COIP4C.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The obstacles facing the reduction of industrial action are several and a short presentation of this nature cannot claim to examine them exhaustively. In the interest of conciseness the researcher has categorized them under the attitude of management to her workers, the place of human relations in unions of firms, the implication of collective group action, organized labour and human relations and the impact of modern industrialization on the workers.
1.3 The Delimitation Of The Problem
The extent of the study will be limited in finding out the factors necessary for the reduction of the effect of strike action on the academic performance of students of higher learning.
To find out some of the effects militating against the smooth running of a firm and the ways to deal with them thereby reducing them to reducing, if not eliminating them completely.
1.4 The Purpose Of This Project
The purpose of this project on the reduction of the effects of strike action on academic performance of students of higher learning is to show us the idea and ways the strike action should be nipped in the board.
The need for the leaders and managements to continue to live to the terms of contract agreement with their workers and labour unions.
Having known all these, the leaders (employers) will be able to overcome industrial actions in their day to today running of their firms and move ahead in piloting the firm’s offering positively and productivity.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The investigation into the factors necessary for reducing the effects of strike action on the academic performance of students of higher learning is very important because it will give light to the managers, supervisor and union leader who regard strike actions as good undertakings, to devise a better approach for resolving industrial disputes.
The project will also help the affected groups to resort to round table discussions for setting the industrial matters and issues.
1.6 The Research Questions
1. What are effects of strike action?
2. How are the strike actions affected your academic performances?
3. Are there ways of reducing the effects?
4. Have the government, ever tried to find solution to incessant strike actions in the country?
5. How effective have the government intervention been to th reducing of these e
H01: Strike actions seem not to effect the academic performance of students of higher learning
H02: The effects of strike actions seem not to be reduced by the government
H03: Governments seen not to be concerned about the strike action and its effect
H04: There are no significance relations between the strike action and students’ performances in the higher learning.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Strike action is one of the activities that do with deviancy or special indiscipline. It can be referred to as a grievance a person or organization has over another person or organization.
“The process of integrating interest requires both preventive and curative activities. Despite the best of management practice, conflicts between employees and the organization will occur. A total absence of conflicts would be unbelievable, boring and a strong indication that such conflicts are being suppressed” (Ogide, 2014).
Ogide (2014) informs that grievance would include any discontent or dissatisfaction that affects organizational performance. The broad definition of the grievance has its value as far as basic managerial philosophy is concerned. One has to watch for unexpressed dissatisfactions. If is the basis for s sound approach to the department of good moral.
Longman Dictionary of contemporary English defines strike as a time when no work is done because of disagreement, example, over pay or working conditions.
In Ogide (2014) there is always a service agreement. A contract of employment agreement may exist, whether reduced to a written contract or not. However, a written service agreement is usually required where the post being filled carried authority and responsibility.
Negotiation through the grievance procedures is given considered to be a continuation of the collective bargaining which theoretically stopped with the signing of a new contract (Ogide, 2014). A grievance machinery is usually thought of in connection with a company that deals with a union. Employees know where they stand in matters pertaining to the justice or injustice of their treatment.
2.1. Courses of Strike Action
Many causes are responsible for strike action. “Inherent in labour management relationship are both conflicting and joint interest, collective bargaining as an instrument in labour – management relationship is based on the existence of divergent goals, needs and aspiration between labour and management. It provides an opportunity for an exchange of information, which enhances the understanding of the parties for each others position, objectives and problems (Olise, 2000).
Strike actions sprang up as a result government interference in trade unions. In 1990, for instance, government seemed to have stepped up its intervention, in the internal Affairs of the Nigerian labour Movement as the Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) virtually lost its independence under incessant government regulations of its activities. The major intervention of the Babangida regime in the internal affairs of the NLC began in 1988 when the regime dissolved the democratically elected leadership of the congress and appointed a sole administrator to run the affairs of the congress for six months.
The ban of the Customs, Excise and Immigration Staff Union (ECEIMSN) was the most controversial decision in 1990 and dnevo substantial protest. On February n1, 1990 the Federal Military Government announced the ban of the Union under a new degree, the Trade Unions (Miscellaneous Provisions) Degree 25 of 1989.
Again, in 1990, seven registered trade unions were proscribed by Government Gazette 63 of 1990. Unions proscribed included the printing and publishing Association of Nigeria, Metallic and Non-metallic mines senior staff Association, Air Transport Services Employers of Nigeria, Nigeria Association of Conservancy Employers, Nigeria Mining Employers Association, Association of Furniture, fixture and woodworks employers of Nigeria, and Electricity and Gas Workers Senior Staff Association. The proscription orders noticed the right of Nigeria to form and belong to association and trade unions of their choice.
In April 1990, government announced a ban on the traditional May Day rallies organized by the Nigeria Labour Congress and its affiliate trade unions to commorate the International workers Day (May 1).
On 27th August 1990, government lifted the two-year ban on the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) but its status as a trade union affiliated to the Nigeria Labour Congress, was not restored.
The National Association of Nigeria Students (NANS) remained banned. All calls for its de-proscription went ignored even though towards the end of the year government stated it would reconsider the ban.
The right of individual Nigerian citizens and social groups to form independent political parties for the purpose of contesting elections remained in abeyance in 1990. Under the transition to civil Rule Programme being implemented by the Federal Military Government, only the two government formed political parties (NRC) and (SDP) wee allowed to operate without mincing words, it can be agreed upon that incessant violation of human rights, as they affect trade unions, academics, students’ unions, political associations, assemblies, economic rights, women’s and children’s rights, the violation of rule of law and absolutist promulgation of decrees, illegal detentions, executive disregard for due process and all worth not are good instruments for strike actions.
2.2 Remedies to Strike Actions
Quoting the contract of employment Act 1972, Ogide (2014) states “This Act made some amendments to the contracts of Employment Act 1963. Some of its effects on employers and employee are dealt with as follows:
1. Effects: The act has two main effects (i) it gives both employers and employees rights to minimum period of notice to terminate employment (ii) It imposes a duty on employers to provide their employees with written particulars of their main terms (employee hand book) of employment et cetena.
Because of the diversity of human relations, and the intricacies of strike actions, an extensive list of subjects could be included in its study; however, in order to reduce the effects of strike action and the scope of study to manageable Dinits for persons with m
i) Understanding the background and development of the human relations movement.
ii) Recognizing each person as unique, and understanding the human needs that we all shore.
iii) Understanding the meaning of work and its impact on people
iv) Understanding the role of management and leadership as factors in human relations.
v) Understanding communications and group processes
vi) Understanding the nature of organization and the man people behave and work together.
Carvell (1980) continues “Each of these topics has myriad issues and subtopics that could be examined at length, but unless a supervisor has some working grasp of the essentials of the major topics just listed, his or her chances of being effective are diminished.
Human relations has bene subjected to many practices, some of which have been well intentioned and enthusiastic but not researched well enough to substantiate their long-or short-term results. The procession of management theories begin during the early stages of industrial development.
By the early 1960, the stage was set for judging the effectiveness of managers and supervisor by what they achieved rather than by their leadership styles. The result was an increased use of predetermined outcomes as a means assessing the performance of workers and managers.
Windmuller et al (1987) stresses on the importance of motivation as a means of reducing the effects of strike actions. In factors affecting job design, it is stated that the process of intrinsic motivation is highlighted as a factor that people do in the course of their work that gives them satisfaction. Job design is embedded into premises that effective performance and genuine satisfaction in work follows mainly from the intrinsic content of a job.
Besides, characteristics of task structure is another. Job content is the first component of job design, the job content may consists of a number of tasks or it may be one main task with a number of interrelated elements on functions. In complex jobs, individual may carry out a variety of connected tasks each with a number of functions.
The complexity in a job may be a reflection of the number and variety of task to be carried out, the difference skills or competence to be used, the range and scope of the decision that have to be made. In certain profession, the methodology of accomplishing a task is left to the discretion of the job holders, therefore internal structure of each task consists of three basic elements of planning, executing and controlling.
The planning stages entails deciding on the course of action, the resources to be used, the time and the methodology. The executing stage consists of operationalising the plan to achieve result. The controlling stage entails monitoring the progress and performance, evaluation and taking of medial action when necessary. (Walker, 1980).
In the course of planning, executing and controlling the job holders strives towards organizational productivity and individual satisfaction by way of accomplishment which is occasioned by the quantum of decision taking by the individual worker and the outcome of that decision. (Otobo 2000).
Giwa (2000) opines that some of today’s problems of leadership stem from yesterday’s ideas and concepts of leadership.
According to Giwa (2000) “How the leader uses his authority will affect;
– the productivity of the group
– the freedom of the members
The effective manager of flexible, and has a range of styles, takes a contingency view and includes himself in as a force, accepts, does not avoid responsibility but involves others.
The effective manager is aware of both short and long run problems and group effectiveness, makes necessary decisions, alone or with the group where relevant to the demands of the situation.
J.A.C. Brown suggests the need to distinguish between the leadership types.
a. Formal leader: He is appointed and official on company chart. Here individual qualities of personality is not so important.
b. Informal leaders: He is often ‘thrown up’ by the group and is unofficial. He, individual qualities may be a factor.
c. Socio-emotional leader: He is aided with cohesion, identification, morale or as a catalyst. These types exist at all levels of management.
Brown points out that in any work context the manager/leader needs to be the ‘conductor of the orchestra, not a one-man-band.
Alisjahbana (1980) on conflict says, “to enhance the positive growth of organization, concert efforts are internationally made to resolve both individual and group conflicts. But, it should be realized that conflict situations differ. As such, the resolution of a given conflict has to related to the sources and type of conflict. And it should be stressed that cunselling aids the resolution of conflicts by way of reducing emotional blockages and assisting the parties concerned to develop win-win solutions.
However before a conflict could be resolved, certain factors must be present. The factors include;
i. a large coo-operative climate must exist
ii. the legitimacy of each part to the conflict should not be questioned.
This is because in a largely competitive climate, individuals or groups will deny the legitimacy or the interests of the other party. And attempts will be made to coerce the other party into submission, thereby increasing the winning party’s power
iii. both parties should depend basically upon the use of persuasion
iv. the conflict should not be viewed or considered as being caused by the idiosyncrasies of the individual(s) on the other side;
v. there should be a joint problem solving situation, instead of encouraging a win-lose game;
vi. it should be defined as being of a small size. This is because the larger or broader a conflict is presented or conceptualized the more difficult or harder it is to resolve. That is, the case with which conflicts are resolved depends largely upon how they are tabled or perceived. In order to reduce the motivational significance of a conflict to the parties involved and the consequent emotional involvement, it is necessary to reduce the definition of the size of such a conflict.
When the above factors are present, any or some of the following actions could be taken in the course of settling a conflict.
i) finding a reasonable superordinate that appeals to both groups;
ii) finding a ‘common enemy’ for the groups;
iii) having on out side, often a common boss, to serve as judge who will either hand down a ‘win-lose’ or ‘compromise’ verdict.
iv) increasing the amount of interaction and communication between individuals or groups;
v) bringing conflict groups together in ‘confrontation meeting’ to air their differences and complaints. Efforts are then made to work through the differences making use of structural integration;
vi) avoiding this is done when disputes about unimportant matter(s) need to be prevented, though it is not an effective long term solution.
To reduce the effects of strike action on the academic performance of students of higher learning, conflicts could be resolved in any of the following ways:
1) collaboration for problem – solving: This involves each of the parties involved jointly working up to 9 situation. This is partly because of the belief that objectives are shared. Efforts are therefore geared towards finding s solution that satisfied the shared criteria. While emphasis is placed on the gathering of information, search behaviour is increased, and the search for new alternative is stressed.
2) Domination: These cannot be victory for one side over the other. This can solve the use of force, with the party having more power leading it over the weaker party. Force can also be sued during emergencies when urgent need id felt. Here there could be coercion by one party leading to the surrender of the other party. Such a surrender could be voluntary or involuntary.
3) Compromise: This involves each of the parties involved moving to a ‘middle of the road’ position from their former extreme position. Each side foregoes a few demands, while gaining a few things. This is, each side gives up something so as to have peace.
4) Persuasion: It is thought that the goals of individuals may not be the same, but no goal should be taken as fixed. Efforts are made at finding acceptable common goals, because of the belief, that at, some point along the line goals are shared.
5) Integration: This appears to be a very constructive method of resolving conflicts. This method concerns dealing with a situation where there are conflicting views, and in which a place is found for each desire, with neither side sacrificing anything both sides gain. This is a win-win situation. To achieve integration, a conflict is brought into the open, and a discovery is made of its most important aspects.
Conflict can be positive or negative and destructive. It can also be competitive or constructive. Each type has important implications for the organization. The implications are briefly below:
1. Positive conflict: This stimulates creative thinking, and allows people to rest their skills and abilities. If assists in clarifying view points. Room is created for the trial of new approaches, and the solution of problems which can hinder effective and efficiency. This kind of conflict heightens interest.
2. Destructive conflict: This type leads to people experiencing more stress than could be tolerated. There is a breakdown of cooperation, law and order. There is a decline in task motivation and morale; and a result, effectiveness and efficiency diminish.
3. Constructive conflict: This type assist in shedding light on existing problems, and allows for clarifications. Needed information are sought out and viewed realistically.
4. Competitive conflict: This involves each party to the conflict insisting on winning consequently, leading to one party being victorious at the expense of the other party.
In conclusion, to avoid more strike actions which affect the academic performance of students of higher learning, the authorities like those of higher institutions, should not give orders which must be obeyed. They should not determine policy without consulting group. They should not give information of future plans but tell group what steps they must take. They should not make praise or criticism personal, otherwise they would be creating more problems that will trigger strike actions.
Typical behaviour or reaction to autocratic style members or workforce become dull, apathetic or hostile. A climate develops of negativism, destructiveness, scapegoating, making mistakes deliberately stoppages, sabotage.