Social Networking Media and Perceived Academic Performance of undergraduates
Social Networking Media and Perceived Academic Performance of undergraduates.
Many parents are worried that their collage students are spending too much time on facebook and other social media sites and not enough time studying. Therefore, our research ascertains the relationship between the social media and students’ study efficiency.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Since the advent of social media sites in 1990s, it is assumed that the academic performance of students is facing a lot of neglect and challenge. there is a deviation, distraction and divided attention between social networking activities and their academic work. It is observed that students devote more attention to social media than they do to their studies. The negative effects of these social networking sites outweigh the positives ones. These sites have caused some potentials harm to the society, cyber bulling child pornography and additions. The students become victim of social networks more often than anyone else. This is because of the reason that when they are studying or searching out their course material on line, they get to these sites to kill the boredom in their study time diverting their study time, diverting their attention from their work. It is a common sight to see a student’s chatting in sensitive and highly organized places like church ,mosque and lecture venues.some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicatedthe situation, as youths no longer needs to visit a cybercafé before they send receive messengers. Attention has been shifted from visible to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in the process. The phenomena has become a sources of worry to many who believe in knowledge and skill acquisition. The emergence of social media as a result of advancement in techonology and expansion in internet software has raised eye brows amongs academics on its (social media ) impacts on studies. Students at all levels of learning now have divided attention to studies, as a result of available opportunities to be harnessed form social media. Thus the problem this study investigates is the social media networks and perceived academic performance of the undergraduate students.
1.3 Research question
To what extent has social media networks affected the academic performance of the undergraduate students. What factors are responsible for student’s indulgence in social media network?
What social networking sites do the undergraduate students have access to?
What are the perceptions of students towards social networking media?
What strategies could be put in place to ameliorates the challenges social media on the academic performance o undergraduate?
1.4 Objective of the study
To ascertain the extent social media network affected the academic performance of the undergraduate students.
To ascertain the factors responsible for students’ indulgence in media networks.
To ascertain ways social media networks has impacted on the behavioural pattern of undergraduate students.
To ascertain the perception of towards social networking media.
To ascertain the strategies to put in place to ameliorate the challenges social media on the academic performance of undergraduate students.
1.5 Significations of the study
The study has a practical as theoretical significance. Practically, the study will enable policy makers and the government to make polices that will minimizes student’s indulgence and addiction to social media networks.
Theoretically, it will contribute to existing knowledge on the social and the perceived student’s academic performance. The study will help researchers with more information on the influence of social media on the student’s academic performance.it will be relevant in assisting students in understanding the diversity to social media. It will provide relevant material for students and other researchers undertaking similar research.
1.5 Definition of terms
For the purposes of this study, the following terms are defined
Crowd sourcing :this is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contribution from a large some of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.
e-learning: comprise all the form of electronically supported learning and teaching, which are procedural in character and aim to effect the construction of knowledge with reference to individual experience, practice and knowledge of the learner.
Facebook friends: number of friends a student had listed on their face book profile or social network.
Face book browsing : is the actively of surfing face book to socialize, learn from friends, daily activity, pass time, entertainment or work related.
Social networking :is the use of wed-based social media programmers to make connections with friends, family, classmates, customers and clients.
Social media : refers to the use of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into an interactive dialogue that allow the creation and exchange of user –generated contents”.
Media : are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication.
Academic : it is concerned with studying from books as opposed by a practical work.
Undergraduate : some who is studying at a university.
Computer: a computer is a machine that receives or stones or process data according to a stored program.
2.1 The concept of internet
Historically, there tow conflicting versions about the origin of the internet opinionated by two schools of throught. The first school is of the opinion that, the internet is a product of the cold war. The air force in 1962, wanting to maintain the military’s ability to transfer around the country even if the given area is destroyed in an enemy’s attack, commissioned leading computer scientist to develop the means to do so. But many researches and scientist dispute this myth’ that has gone unchallengeable long enough to become widely accepted as fact that the internet was initially built to protect national security in the face of nuclear attack (hafner and Iyon 1996,p.10). in the second version, as early as 1956,psychologist linklider a devotee of Mashall Mcluhan, thin king on the of citizens; however, computer consoles a television set connected in the nationwide network.the political process would essentially be giant teleconference, he wrote and campaign whole month series of communication among candidates, propagandist commentates, political group and voters . the key he added is the self motivating exhilaration that accommodate truly effective interaction with the information through a good network computer.(baron,2012,p.34). the internet (net or web) is more of interactive medium of mass medium, and can briefly describe as network, of network of plulcask as (1994) which vehicles for network of all kind and individuals stand-alone to inter wine to form a global networking which connects people all around the world . the internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of (net or web) is more of interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly describe as network, of network of plulcask as (1994) which vehicles for network of all kinds and individuals stand-alone computer to inter wine to form a global network which connects people all round the world. The internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computer together globally forming a network in which any other computer as long as they are both connected to the internet .(Retrieved November 10th 2012) (www.webpedia.com/ did you know internet /2012 web-vs. Internet-asp).Okeye (2000) ,by 1999,said the internet was used to estimate number of 50 million people worldwide.
Gutenberg made us all readers, radio and television made us all firsthand observers, aerox made us all publishers and the internet made us all journalist, broadcaster , columnist,commentators and critics. In 1997,Finnegan Jr and Viswanath identified three main effects of functions of mass media in the internet.
2.1.2 The concept of social media
Social media is that means that employed mobile and web base technology to create highly interactive platform via which individuals and community share, co-create , discuss and modifies users’ generated contact (kietzmannn,2012). Social media is a phrase being tossed around a lot. It is a website that does not just give information about interact with you while giving you information .it is a group of confuse internet based application but allows the creation and exchange of users generated content. It is easy to confuse social media with social news because we often refer to members of the news as the media. Adding to it,that social news site is also social media site. Some media website includes;
1 social book marketing- interacts by tagging website and searching through website book marked by other(blink list,simple).
- social news-interact by voting articles and commenting on them (dig, propello).
- social networking-interact by adding friends,commenting in photo and profiles, sharing groups for discussions (facebook,2go,bb chat)
- social photo and video sharing-interact by sharing photos and commenting on the user submission.(youtube and fliki).
- wikis-interact by adding articles and editing existing articles.(Wikipedia, wikia).(retrived December 2nd 2012) (www.wikipediafreeencyclopedia.com)
Social media refers to the means of interaction among people in which they create, share, and comment among themselves in different networks. Andreas and micheal (2000) are of the opinion that social media is a group of internet based application that builds on the ideological foundation and allows the creation and exchange of users – generated content. Social media has become one of the major channel of chatting through platforms such as 2go, bb chat, blogger and wikia. There has been an increase of in the mobile social media which has created new opportunity for browsing.(retrived December 3rd 2012).(www.census.gov.).
The internet useage effect of social media, in views of nielson, (2012) is that ,internet users continue to spend more time on social media than any site. The total time spent on social media across mobile devices increased by 37%, 121 billon minutes in 2012 compared to 88 billon minutes spent in july 2011
Kaplan and haenlein (2010) classified social media into six different classes as follows:
Collaborative project (Wikipedia)
Blogs and micro blogs (twitter)
Content communities (youtube)
Social networking (2go, facebook,bbchat)
Virtual game world (world of war craft)
Virtual second world (second life)
Technology includes the blogs picture sharing, crowd souring-mail, instant message and voice over. These services could be integrated via social network aggregation platforms.
2.1.3 the concept of social networking site services
It is used to describe any website that enables users to create public profiles within that website and from relationship with other users of the same website who access their profile .it is used to describe community based website, online discussion forum, chat rooms and social space online. (retrieved December 3rd 2012). (www.wepodia.com) .
A social media is an online service or platforms that focus on facilitating the building of social network among people who share interest, activities and background on real life connections. It is a website that allows user (profile), social links and a variety of additional services.
2.4 Social networking in Nigeria
Social network are increasingly gaining momentum in the world of information and communication. It has without doubt altered the conventional method of news gathering and dissemination, a confirmation of what seems to be paradigm shift from print and broadcast media to the more effective and efficient rave of the moment. Social networking played a pivot al role in information and communication in Nigeria last year, that will forever stick to our memories. It all started with the removal of fuel subsidy on new year in 2010/2011. This event showed the overwhelming power of networking. Daily protest were organized and sustained for about a week in social networks. It was a powerful tool that it was rumored that the president considered stopping their operations. Another incident is the case of Cynthia okojie who was murdered by her “facebook friends”. The role of social network is quite overwhelming in this scenario considering the very fact that this ordeal started and ended on facebook it wowed everyone. It proved that social network are becoming tools in the hands of government and weapons for criminals. One of the most shocking andangering thrillers ever was the video and pictures of “aluu4”. It was a horrible sight to behold, inhumanity at its peak. It was evidently one of the biggest news that rocked 2012. It wasn’t the first “criminals” that were butchered or burned alive by angry uncivilized barbaric mobs. The difference between aluu4 and other similar occurrences was simply the presence of social networking which led to empathy from the public and efforts, thus ensuring effective communication which has no doubt brought us this far and hopefully, will aid our journey toward the “new Nigeria”
2.3 types of social networking accessible to undergraduates
Early 1990s, chat rooms and bulletin boards were forms of social networking in a way, they help people to connect with others and share interest communication allows people they had known in high school and colleges and enable them to meet others. In the early 20s, a site called fraudster was setup where people invited their friends and their friends invited others. The site was popular for a while but faced technical difficulties and fake profiles and began to lose members. In 1999, myspace took over but became popular in 2003. Its roots are a bit muddy because it received financial and logistica support from another company called e-universe and most of the early users were employers of e-universe but tom Anderson and chris de wolfe are given credit for much of the innovation and success of the site, which built up to one hundred and fifteen million users worldwide. Members post bios, blogs, video and other things that strike their fancy. (retrieved November 7th 2012) www.mudconnect.com
Some television programmers’ had started producing programmers’ to air on myspace in 2005; Rupert murdoclis news corporation (parent of fox broadcasting) bought myspace for five hundred and eighty dollars($580). A competitor to myspace is facebook which starts in about 2004 mark zuckerburg while he was student at Harvard and grew rapidly in 2007. At first, facebook was solely for college and high school students but mark opened it for every one and like myspace, it encourages all types of membe postings. There are also smaller social networks like 2go, youtube, and blackberry chat for people to have access to. (retrieved November 7th 2012) www.google.com
Facebook is a social networking service founded in 2004, which is privately owned by facebook inc. facebook users may create groups. Facebook currently has the dominant share of the social networking market and is not just the number one ranked social networking service but one of the most popular websites on the internet. As at January 2012, facebook had more than 845 million active users (up from 600 million at the end of 2010) and accounts for one out of every five pages views on the internet worldwide (info-graphic lab,2012). Over 50% of the population of north America uses facebook there are 425million mobile users, 57% of users are females, users share over 100 billion connections collectively, there are 2.7 billion “likes” and 2.50 million photos added to facebook daily, the average facebook user spends 20 minutes on the site per visit, and facebook doubled its revenue from $600 million in 2010to over $1 billion dollars in 2011 (info-graphic) and other resources; for study questions and q and a sessions; to post news and announcements; and as a means to create learning communities.
According to the facebook guide for educators, “facebook can provide students with the opportunity to effectively present their ideas, lead online discussions, and collaborate. In addition, facebook can help you, as an educator, to tap into the digital learning styles of your students. For example, it can a facilitate students -to- student collaboration and provide innovative ways for you to involve students in your subject matter. We also believe that facebook can be a powerful tool to help you connect with your colleagues, share educational content, and enhance communication among teachers, parents and students”. (Fogg et al., 2011, p.3)
2go is a social networking site, chat, and instant messaging (im) application. It enables users to chat on tlieir mobile phones free. You can meet users and 2go users as friends. Chat rooms on different topics are opened where you can join in the discussion and socialize with other and also, 2go have gateways that enable users chat with friends on gtalk, mxit, and facebook. (Retrieved November 9″‘2012, www.Goggle.com.wikkipedia.work).
Blackberry is propriety internet -based instant messenger application included on blackberry devices that allows messaging between blackberry users. It was developed by the manufacturer of the blackberry research in motion (rim); messages sent via blackberry messenger are sent over the internet and use the blackberry pin system, so communication is only possible between blackberry devices.(Retrieved November 10″‘ 2012) wvvw.mit.edu./people/mkgray/net. Pinging allows you to connect to friends using a ping id, something akin to blackberry pin or found friends via email or twitter; you can send text, messages, photos, videos and voice memos. Pretty much anything you niight want to send to a friend can be using pin. Messages are in real time over die data network and pushed to the recipient. Once a message is little s or d and a tick with an r indicating the message has been sent and read. Ping chat also packs group messaging and social profiles, which allows you to display a photo, status and some information about yourself to confirm contacts and through these, one is connected to die whole world.
2.4 Factors Influencing Use of Social networking media among undergraduates
Congruously, mcquail’s (1983) classification of the following common reasons for media use:
Finding out about relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world Seeking advice on practical matters or opinions and decision choices
Satisfying curiosity and general interest
Learning; self- education
Gaining a sense of security through knowledge
Finding reinforcement for personal values
Finding models of behavior
Identifying with valued odiers (in die media)
Gaining insight into oneself
Integration and social interaction
Gaining insight into circumstances of otiters; social empathy
Finding a basis for conversation and social interaction
Having a substitute for real- life companionship
Helping one to connect with family, friends and society
Escaping, or being diverted, from problems
Getting intrinsic cultural or aestiietic enjoyment
Sexual arousal (p. 73)
These dimensions of uses mid gratifications assume an active audience malting motivated choices.
Previous studies show that college student tend to use social networking sites to builds a positive
relationship between their friends in campus (Ellison, steinfield & Eampe, 2007). Similarly, there is
a construction between direct communication and online interaction, which the users using social
networking sites for social interaction with people from dieir daily lives (Bryant et al., 2006). There have a high correlation between social networking use and social interaction in a sample of the college student diat also measures the self esteem and life satisfaction. Students who were low were low in self esteem, but frequendy used social network, had higher level of social interaction than their peers who already high in self esteem. Result that suggest diat college student who have a low self esteem or life satisfaction, might benefit more from social networking use.(Ellison,steinfield and lampe,2007)
Other exploratory studies (steinfield, Ellison & lampe, 2008; Valenzuela,park &kee,2009) also show die positive relationship between social networking use and social interaction, and have considered college age users. There have an argument between Harman et al., (2005) and valkenburg et al., (2006) studies in relationship between die level of self esteem and social interaction among student. Harman et al., found that students who have lower level of self esteem more tend to use social networking sites for social interaction more dian those with higher self esteem. This is because it encourages them with predominantly positive socializing interaction ratiier dian face to face communication that they use daily. Based on these findings, valkenburg et al., studies has been argued diat die student who have high self esteem receive the most posidve feedback from other online user which is almost 78%, rater dian diose who have lower self esteem. It could be srgued, therefore diat. student behaviors have possibilities in influencing their social interaction on social netvvorldng sites.
Some users found that, diey become more organized since they create the profile on social netvvorldng sites, generally witii regard to communication and sharing information network (schulten, 2009). A previous study examine the relationship between social networking usage and academic achievement and found diat this variable have a moderated significant, by student interest and of social network function based on the features of die social network itself (lding, 2007).
2.5 effects of social network media Decrease in productivity
Social media netvvorldng sits decreases productivity as so many students end up spending the better part of tiieir study hours checking those sites. Rather than get tiieir assignment done, they spend the whole time either tweeting or posting messages on face book. There is bound to be a reduction.
Other exploratory studies (steinfield, Ellison & lampe, 2008; Valenzuela.park &kee,2009) also show die positive relationship between social networking use and social interaction, and have considered college age users. There have an argument between Harman et al., (2005) and valkenburg et al., (2006) studies in relationship between die level of self esteem and social interaction among student. Harman et al., found that students who have lower level of self esteem more tend to use social networking sites for social interaction more than those widi higher self esteem. This is because it encourages them with predominantly positive socializing interaction rather than face to face communication that they use daily. Based on these findings, valkenburg et al., studies has been argued that die student who have high self esteem receive the most positive feedback from otiier online user which is almost 78%, rater dian diose who have lower self esteem. It could be srgued, therefore tiiat student behaviors have possibilities in influencing their social interaction on social networking sites.
Some users found that they become more organized since they create the profile on social networking sites, generally with regard to communication and sharing information network (schulten, 2009). A previous study examine the relationship between social networking usage and academic achievement and found tiiat this variable have a moderated significant by student interest and of social network function based on the features of die social network itself (kling, 2007).
2.5 effects of social network media Decrease in productivity
Social media networking sits decreases productivity as so many students end up spending the better part of their study hours checking those sites. Rather than get their assignment done, they spend the whole time either tweeting or posting messages on face book. There is bound to be a reduction in student focus of attention when they are studying and at the same time trying to get involved in activities on these social sites. This often time cause a drastic reduction in their academic performance.
Encourages poor grammar usage
Not only does the active involvement in the social sites encourage the poor use of grammar but also spellings, as students mostly use slang or shortened from of words. Using twitter as an example, twitter limits its users to the use of 140 characters; therefore users will have no other option than to abbreviate their words as much as they can, just to enable their thoughts fit into the 140 character provision. As a result of the excessive use of abbreviation words and slang by students on social networks, they start to rely on the computer grammar and spell checkers on their devices. This results in the reduction of their command over English language and also their writings kills.
Reduction in research capabilities
Learning and research capabilities have experienced drastic reduction as result of studies relyingmore on the information accessible easily on these social networking sites and web in general.
Constant visitation of social sites can become very addictive and this is a good thing because it is sure to affect your academic performance. Greater part of your time will be spent on the social sites will not even have time for yourself let alone your studies. Being addicted to social sites will turn your mind from important things like your studies to trivial ones and this will tell on your grades as you are most likely to experience a drastic drop in your grades. And it will certainly lead to bad academic performance.
Reduction in real human contact Students spend so much time on social sites that they begin to spend little or no time at all socializing in person and as a result of this, students are not able to effectively communicate in person. It should be known that effective communication skills are key to success in the real world and employers are getting more and more unsatisfied with die communication skills of graduates due to tiiis reason.
2.6 Influence of Social Networking on
Academic Outcomes Research has examined the general impact of technology on academic achievement and development of children and teenagers. Positive and negative effects of technology on achievement have been documented. Media reports have continuously reported negative impacts of social networking. Lei and zhao (2005) studied the specifics of access, acknowledging diat quantity is not as important as quality when it comes to technology use and student achievement. Specifically, when die quality of technology use is not closely monitored or ensured, computer use may do more harm than good to student achievement in school. In addition, technology diat was found to have a positive impact on academic achievement, or technology with educational” value, was not popular and used less frequently. Otiier reseaixhers have found diat recreational internet use is strongly correlated with impaired academic performance (kubey, lavin, & barrows, 2001; junco & cotton, 2010). Students who reported internet caused schoolwork problems were found to have spent five times more hours online than those who did not, and they were also significantly more likely to report diat tiieir internet use caused them to stay up late, get less sleep, and miss classes. Students who reported academic problems were more likely to use the internet for real-time social activities such as instant messaging and chat rooms. Vandenboogart, 2006 in an unpublished master’s thesis, observed that heavy facebook use was observed among students with lower gaps. In another similar study by kolek and saunders (2008) found diat there was no correlation between facebook use and gpa in a sample of students from a public northeast research university. While in another exemplary survey study reported a negative relationship between facebook use and academic achievement as measured by self-reported gap and hours spent studying per week (karpinski&Duberstein, 2009). Junco et al (2010) investigated a total of 4,491 students in large four-year public universities in the United States on die effect of the perceived instant messaging on learning outcome. Three of die institutions were in urban settings and primarily non residential, and one was in a rural setting and was primarily residential. The outcome being examined in diis study was whether instant messaging interferes with students completing their homework. Results showed that multitasking while instant messaging was related to academic impairment at the bivaiiate level. Students who reported diat diey do schoolwork while instant messaging very frequently and somewhat frequentiy were more likely than diose who do this sometimes, rarely, or never to report academic impairment due to instant message use . Also, as students level of reporting diat tiiey did something else on die coOmputer while instant messaging increased, so did their reports of academic impairment due to instant message use. Similarly, students who reported doing odier things, not on the computer, while instant messaging very frequentiy, somewhat frequently, and sometimes were more likely tiian those who did this rarely or never to report academic impairment as a result of instant message use. Females were more likely to report a detrimental impact of instant messaging on their schoolwork compared to males. Over 50% of each age group, odier than that age 25 and older, reported that. multitasking while instant, messaging was detrimental to their completing their schoolwork. The study also found out that females were more likely to report a detrimental impact of instant messaging on their schoolwork compared to males 2.7 Review of Relevant.
Social Networking Media and Perceived Academic Performance of undergraduates